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      Remifentanil-Induced Secondary Hyperalgesia Is Not Prevented By Preoperative Acetazolamide Administration In Patients Undergoing Total Thyroidectomy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Acute administration of remifentanil may lead to opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). Studies in mice suggest that OIH is mediated by impaired anionic homeostasis in spinal lamina I neurons due to a down-regulation of the K +-Cl co-transporter KCC2, which was reverted using acetazolamide (ACTZ), a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. We propose that ACTZ prevents remifentanil-mediated OIH in humans.

          Patients and methods

          We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial between December 2016 and September 2018. Patients were randomly allocated to receive ACTZ (250 mg of ACTZ 2 h before surgery) or placebo. To detect hyperalgesia, mechanical pain threshold (MPT) were measured before and after surgery using hand-held von Frey filaments in the forearm. Anesthesia was maintained with remifentanil at a target effect site of 4.5 ± 0.5 ng/mL, and sevoflurane at an end-tidal concentration of 0.8 MAC corrected for age.

          Results

          In total, 47 patients completed the study. Both groups were comparable in the baseline characteristics and intraoperative variables. Baseline MPT were similar in both groups. However, MPT in the forearm significantly diminished in the time in both groups. Finally, postoperative pain and morphine consumption were similar between groups.

          Conclusion

          Both groups developed remifentanil-mediated OIH at 12–18 h after surgery. However, ACTZ did not prevent the MPT reduction in patients undergoing total thyroidectomy.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Influence of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of remifentanil. I. Model development.

          Previous studies have reported conflicting results concerning the influence of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of fentanyl, alfentanil, and sufentanil. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the new short-acting opioid remifentanil. Sixty-five healthy adults (38 men and 27 women) ages 20 to 85 y received remifentanil by constant-rate infusion of 1 to 8 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 for 4 to 20 min. Frequent arterial blood samples were drawn and assayed for remifentanil concentration. The electroencephalogram was used as a measure of drug effect. Population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling was performed using the software package NONMEM. The influence of volunteer covariates were analyzed using a generalized additive model. The performances of the simple (without covariates) and complex (with covariates) models were evaluated prospectively in an additional 15 healthy participants ages 41 to 84 y. The parameters for the simple three-compartment pharmacokinetic model were V1 = 4.98 l, V2 = 9.01 l, V3 = 6.54 l, Cl1 = 2.46 l/min, Cl2 = 1.69 l/min, and Cl3 = 0.065 l/min. Age and lean body mass were significant covariates. From the ages of 20 to 85 y, V1 and Cl1 decreased by approximately 25% and 33%, respectively. The parameters for the simple sigmoid Emax pharmacodynamic model were Ke0 = 0.516 min-1, E0 = 20 Hz, Emax = 5.62 Hz, EC50 = 11.2 ng/ml, and gamma = 2.51. Age was a significant covariate of EC50 and Ke0, with both decreasing by approximately 50% for the age range studied. The complex pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model performed better than did the simple model when applied prospectively. This study identified (1) an effect of age on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of remifentanil; (2) an effect of lean body mass on the pharmacokinetic parameters; and (3) no influence of gender on any pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic parameter.
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            Opioid-induced hyperalgesia in humans: molecular mechanisms and clinical considerations.

            Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) is most broadly defined as a state of nociceptive sensitization caused by exposure to opioids. The state is characterized by a paradoxical response whereby a patient receiving opioids for the treatment of pain may actually become more sensitive to certain painful stimuli. The type of pain experienced may or may not be different from the original underlying painful condition. Although the precise molecular mechanism is not yet understood, it is generally thought to result from neuroplastic changes in the peripheral and central nervous systems that lead to sensitization of pronociceptive pathways. OIH seems to be a distinct, definable, and characteristic phenomenon that may explain loss of opioid efficacy in some cases. Clinicians should suspect expression of OIH when opioid treatment effect seems to wane in the absence of disease progression, particularly if found in the context of unexplained pain reports or diffuse allodynia unassociated with the pain as previously observed. This review highlights the important mechanistic underpinnings and clinical ramifications of OIH and discusses future research directions and the latest clinical evidence for modulation of this potentially troublesome clinical phenomenon.
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              Opioid-induced hyperalgesia in patients after surgery: a systematic review and a meta-analysis.

              Opioids can increase sensitivity to noxious stimuli and cause opioid-induced hyperalgesia. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the clinical consequences of intra-operative doses of opioid. We identified randomized controlled trials which compared intra-operative opioid to lower doses or placebo in adult patients undergoing surgery from MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILAC, Cochrane, and hand searches of trial registries. We pooled data of postoperative pain intensity, morphine consumption, incidence of opioid-related side-effects, primary and secondary hyperalgesia. For dichotomous outcomes relative risks [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] and for continuous outcomes mean differences (MDs) or standardized mean difference (SMD; 95% CI) were calculated. Twenty-seven studies involving 1494 patients were included in the analysis. Patients treated with high intra-operative doses of opioid reported higher postoperative pain intensity than the reference groups (MD: 9.4 cm; 95% CI: 4.4, 14.5) at 1 h, (MD: 7.1 cm; 95% CI: 2.8, 11.3) at 4 h, and (MD: 3 cm; 95% CI: 0.4, 5.6) at 24 h on a 100 cm visual analogue scale. They also showed higher postoperative morphine use after 24 h (SMD: 0.7; 95% CI: 0.37, 1.02). There was no difference in the incidences of nausea, vomiting, and drowsiness. These results were mainly associated with the use of remifentanil. The impact of other opioids is less clear because of limited data. This review suggests that high intra-operative doses of remifentanil are associated with small but significant increases in acute pain after surgery. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                JPR
                jpainres
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove
                1178-7090
                06 November 2019
                2019
                : 12
                : 2991-2997
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Hospital Clínico Universidad de Chile , Santiago, Chile
                [2 ]Centro de Investigación Clínica Avanzada (CICA), Facultad de Medicina and Hospital Clínico Universidad de Chile , Santiago, Chile
                [3 ]Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, Hospital Clínico Universidad de Chile , Santiago, Chile
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Antonello Penna Departmento de Anestesiología y Medicina Perioperatoria, Hospital Clínico, Universidad de Chile , Santos Dumont 999, Santiago838 0456, ChileTel +56-2-29788209 Email apenna@uchile.cl
                Article
                221131
                10.2147/JPR.S221131
                6842739
                © 2019 Gutiérrez et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, References: 22, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Research

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                anesthesia, chloride dysregulation, carbonic anhydrase, pain

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