The sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the leading cause of death of infants between the end of the first month and the first year of life. The risk of SIDS is increased in subsequent siblings of infants with SIDS, infants with apnea of infancy (AI), and prematurely born infants. The cause of SIDS is unknown, but much clinical and investigative attention has been directed toward AI as a possible premortem expression of the abnormality that can potentially cause SIDS. Both AI and SIDS probably have multiple different mechanisms. Some infants with AI have been shown to have abnormal control of respiration. This article is intended to summarize the relationship between AI and SIDS and to review the published physiologic studies about AI. I present and discuss a system for evaluation and "treatment" of patients with AI.