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      Recurrent Membranous Nephropathy After Kidney Transplantation: Treatment and Long-Term Implications.

      Transplantation

      Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)

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          Abstract

          Membranous nephropathy (MN) can recur in kidney allografts leading to graft dysfunction and failure. The aims of these analyses were to assess MN recurrence, clinical and histologic progression, and response to anti-CD20 therapy.

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          Most cited references 28

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          The Banff 97 working classification of renal allograft pathology.

          Standardization of renal allograft biopsy interpretation is necessary to guide therapy and to establish an objective end point for clinical trials. This manuscript describes a classification, Banff 97, developed by investigators using the Banff Schema and the Collaborative Clinical Trials in Transplantation (CCTT) modification for diagnosis of renal allograft pathology. Banff 97 grew from an international consensus discussion begun at Banff and continued via the Internet. This schema developed from (a) analysis of data using the Banff classification, (b) publication of and experience with the CCTT modification, (c) international conferences, and (d) data from recent studies on impact of vasculitis on transplant outcome. Semiquantitative lesion scoring continues to focus on tubulitis and arteritis but includes a minimum threshold for interstitial inflammation. Banff 97 defines "types" of acute/active rejection. Type I is tubulointerstitial rejection without arteritis. Type II is vascular rejection with intimal arteritis, and type III is severe rejection with transmural arterial changes. Biopsies with only mild inflammation are graded as "borderline/suspicious for rejection." Chronic/sclerosing allograft changes are graded based on severity of tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Antibody-mediated rejection, hyperacute or accelerated acute in presentation, is also categorized, as are other significant allograft findings. The Banff 97 working classification refines earlier schemas and represents input from two classifications most widely used in clinical rejection trials and in clinical practice worldwide. Major changes include the following: rejection with vasculitis is separated from tubulointerstitial rejection; severe rejection requires transmural changes in arteries; "borderline" rejection can only be interpreted in a clinical context; antibody-mediated rejection is further defined, and lesion scoring focuses on most severely involved structures. Criteria for specimen adequacy have also been modified. Banff 97 represents a significant refinement of allograft assessment, developed via international consensus discussions.
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            Identifying specific causes of kidney allograft loss.

            The causes of kidney allograft loss remain unclear. Herein we investigated these causes in 1317 conventional kidney recipients. The cause of graft loss was determined by reviewing clinical and histologic information the latter available in 98% of cases. During 50.3 +/- 32.6 months of follow-up, 330 grafts were lost (25.0%), 138 (10.4%) due to death with function, 39 (2.9%) due to primary nonfunction and 153 (11.6%) due to graft failure censored for death. The latter group was subdivided by cause into: glomerular diseases (n = 56, 36.6%); fibrosis/atrophy (n = 47, 30.7%); medical/surgical conditions (n = 25, 16.3%); acute rejection (n = 18, 11.8%); and unclassifiable (n = 7, 4.6%). Glomerular pathologies leading to failure included recurrent disease (n = 23), transplant glomerulopathy (n = 23) and presumed nonrecurrent disease (n = 10). In cases with fibrosis/atrophy a specific cause(s) was identified in 81% and it was rarely attributable to calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) toxicity alone (n = 1, 0.7%). Contrary to current concepts, most cases of kidney graft loss have an identifiable cause that is not idiopathic fibrosis/atrophy or CNI toxicity. Glomerular pathologies cause the largest proportion of graft loss and alloinmunity remains the most common mechanism leading to failure. This study identifies targets for investigation and intervention that may result in improved kidney transplantation outcomes.
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              PLA2R autoantibodies and PLA2R glomerular deposits in membranous nephropathy.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                10.1097/TP.0000000000001056
                26720301

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