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      Circadian Blood Pressure Variation and Antihypertensive Medication Adjustment in Normoalbuminuric Type 2 Diabetes Patients

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of an antihypertensive treatment adjustment on 24-hour blood pressure variation in type 2 diabetes patients. Methods: The study group included 59 hypertensive type 2 diabetes patients subjected to a single one-step antihypertensive agent dose adjustment (increase or decrease). Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed at baseline and 4–6 weeks after the treatment modification. Controls were 41 matched patients, in whom antihypertensive treatment remained unchanged. Results: At baseline, 45 (76%) study group patients and 29 (71%) controls were ‘non-dippers’; a similar number of patients in both groups converted to ‘dipping’ or vice versa: 11 (19%) from the study group and 7 (17%) controls. ‘Converters’ from the study group were significantly younger (47.5 ± 3.9 vs. 56.4 ± 12.2 years; p < 0.05) and had lower 24-hour systolic blood pressure than ‘non-converters’: 113.7 ± 7.2 vs. 127.7 ± 20.3 mm Hg (p < 0.01). Conclusion: A single one-step antihypertensive medication adjustment does not affect ‘dipping’ status in type 2 diabetes patients. However, the assessment of blood pressure variation should be made with greater caution in younger type 2 diabetes subjects with low systolic blood pressure.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Use and interpretation of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring: recommendations of the British hypertension society.

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            Reversed circadian blood pressure rhythm is associated with occurrences of both fatal and nonfatal vascular events in NIDDM subjects.

            To assess the significance of reversed circadian blood pressure (BP) rhythms as a predictive factor of vascular events in NIDDM, vital status after an average 4-year follow-up was determined in 325 NIDDM subjects in whom the circadian BP profile had been monitored between 1988 and 1996. Circadian BP rhythm was analyzed by the COSINOR (a compound word for cosine and vector) method, as previously described. After exclusion of 37 dropped-out subjects, 288 were recruited to the further analysis, of which 201 had a normal circadian BP rhythm (group N) and the remaining 87 had a reversed one (group R). There was no difference in sex, HbA1c, the prevalence of smokers, serum lipids, or serum electrolytes between groups N and R at baseline, whereas age, the prevalence of hypertension, serum creatinine, and diabetic complications were more pronounced in group R than in group N. During the follow-up period (which averaged 52 months in group N and 36 months in group R), fatal and nonfatal vascular (cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, peripheral vascular arteries, and retinal artery) events occurred in 20 subjects in group N and 56 in group R. Unadjusted survival times and event-free times were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method, and there was a significant difference in both unadjusted survival and event-free survival rates between groups N and R (P < 0.001 each; log-rank test). The Cox proportional-hazards model adjusted for age, sex, circadian BP pattern, duration of diabetes, therapy for diabetes, various diabetic complications, and hypertension demonstrated that circadian BP pattern and age exhibited significant, high adjusted relative risks for fatal events, and that diabetic nephropathy, postural hypotension, and hypertension as well as circadian BP pattern exhibited significant, high adjusted relative risks with respect to the occurrence of various nonfatal vascular events. These results suggest that reversed circadian BP rhythm is associated with occurrences of both fatal and nonfatal vascular events in NIDDM subjects.
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              A validation of the Mobil O Graph (version 12) ambulatory blood pressure monitor.

              To assess the clinical accuracy of the Mobil O Graph (version 12) ambulatory blood pressure monitor in an adult population. The accuracy of the device was assessed by predefined criteria (British Hypertension Society, BHS) in 85 subjects recruited from the patients and staff in a teaching hospital. A series of same-arm sequential blood pressure measurements were taken: first two observers taking simultaneous mercury readings, followed by a reading with the Mobil O Graph ambulatory monitor. A total of seven readings were taken from each subject in the sitting position. The data were then analysed according to the BHS protocol and the criteria of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI). The Mobil O Graph ambulatory monitor fulfilled the criteria of the BHS protocol, achieving a grade B for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and a grade A for diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The mean differences were -2+/-8 mmHg for SBP and -2+/-7 mmHg for DBP. The device therefore also passed the AAMI standard (the mean to be within 5+/-8 mmHg). The Mobil O Graph ambulatory monitor performed in a satisfactory manner according to the BHS and the AAMI criteria and can therefore be recommended for clinical use in the general population.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2007
                June 2007
                24 May 2007
                : 30
                : 3
                : 182-186
                Affiliations
                Diabetology and Metabolic Diseases Department, Medical University of Lodz, Barlicki University Hospital No 1, Lodz, Poland
                Article
                103231 Kidney Blood Press Res 2007;30:182–186
                10.1159/000103231
                17536225
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, References: 18, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Original Paper

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