Mountain hare (Lepus timidus) is a widespread species that lives throughout the continental tundra zone of Eurasia, as well as over the greater part of the northern forest zone. For a long time, the presence of the mountain hare in the fauna of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago was assumed. However, documented evidence from the archipelago was lacking. In 2017, two fragments of the lower jaw of a single specimen were found in the Bezymyannaya Bay area on Yuzhny Island, Novaya Zemlya, Russia. This record confirms the presence of the species on the archipelago, while its status remains unclear. The jaw fragments from Novaya Zemlya contained dry meat remnants, indicating that this individual died relatively recently (i.e., no more than 10 years ago). It is likely that the species periodically visits the archipelago, without forming a viable population there.