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      Porous TiNb2O7 nanofibers decorated with conductive Ti1−xNbxN bumps as a high power anode material for Li-ion batteries

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          Abstract

          Porous TiNb 2O 7 nanofibers with metal nitride bumps show ultra-fast rate capability even at 100 C.

          Abstract

          Titanium niobium oxide (TiNb 2O 7) has been reported recently as an attractive anode material for lithium ion batteries due to its practical capacity of ∼280 mA h g −1, which is much higher than those of well-known metal oxide materials such as TiO 2 and Li 4Ti 5O 12. However, low electronic conductivity and poor lithium diffusivity limit its practical use as the active material in lithium ion batteries. Here, we synthesized porous TiNb 2O 7 nanofibers decorated with Ti 1−xNb xN bumps via electro-spinning and thermal ammonia gas treatment. As-prepared nanofibers have one-dimensional geometry with an average diameter of ∼110 nm, and consist of ∼70 nm crystallites and pores in the range of 0–40 nm, shortening pathways for Li + ion migration into the host material. Furthermore, conductive Ti 1−xNb xN bumps with a particle size of ∼5 nm were formed on the surface via thermal ammonia gas treatment which render fast electron transport along the longitudinal direction. The fibers have a specific discharge capacity of ∼254 mA h g −1 at 1 C and a superior rate capability (∼183 mA h g −1 at 100 C). They also show a robust cycle performance over 500 cycles. These dramatic achievements are attributed to heterogeneous nano-structuring creating a porous structure, and the conductivity of the metal nitride achieved by optimal synthetic conditions.

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          Battery materials for ultrafast charging and discharging.

          The storage of electrical energy at high charge and discharge rate is an important technology in today's society, and can enable hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and provide back-up for wind and solar energy. It is typically believed that in electrochemical systems very high power rates can only be achieved with supercapacitors, which trade high power for low energy density as they only store energy by surface adsorption reactions of charged species on an electrode material. Here we show that batteries which obtain high energy density by storing charge in the bulk of a material can also achieve ultrahigh discharge rates, comparable to those of supercapacitors. We realize this in LiFePO(4) (ref. 6), a material with high lithium bulk mobility, by creating a fast ion-conducting surface phase through controlled off-stoichiometry. A rate capability equivalent to full battery discharge in 10-20 s can be achieved.
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            Electrodes with high power and high capacity for rechargeable lithium batteries.

            New applications such as hybrid electric vehicles and power backup require rechargeable batteries that combine high energy density with high charge and discharge rate capability. Using ab initio computational modeling, we identified useful strategies to design higher rate battery electrodes and tested them on lithium nickel manganese oxide [Li(Ni(0.5)Mn(0.5))O2], a safe, inexpensive material that has been thought to have poor intrinsic rate capability. By modifying its crystal structure, we obtained unexpectedly high rate-capability, considerably better than lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2), the current battery electrode material of choice.
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              Heterogeneous nanostructured electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JMCAET
                Journal of Materials Chemistry A
                J. Mater. Chem. A
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                2050-7488
                2050-7496
                2015
                2015
                : 3
                : 16
                : 8590-8596
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Energy Engineering
                [2 ]Hanyang University
                [3 ]Seoul 133-791
                [4 ]Korea
                [5 ]School of Materials Science and Engineering
                [6 ]Yeungnam University
                [7 ]Gyeongsan 721-749
                Article
                10.1039/C5TA00467E
                91383dd9-3ddd-43db-a6e2-3ec119b0f67c
                © 2015
                History

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