Despite nearly 100 years of research and control efforts, malaria remains one of the
most important infectious diseases. An efficient vaccine would be a powerful to tool
to reduce mortality and morbidity. Experimentally, induction of sterile immunity in
humans after vaccination with attenuated sporozoites has been obtained. This observation
has spurred the search for subunit vaccines that aim to reproduce this protection.
As yet none of the current candidate subunit vaccines achieved complete protection
reproducibly. This failure coupled to the recent advent of genetically modified Plasmodium
parasites has led to a renewed interest in the use of live parasites for vaccination
against malaria pre-erythrocytic stages. In this article, we review and discuss the
recent developments in this field.