Laura de Girolamo 1 , Enrico Lucarelli 2 , Giulio Alessandri 3 , Maria Antonietta Avanzini 4 , Maria Ester Bernardo 5 , Ettore Biagi 6 , Anna Teresa Brini 7 , Giovanna D’Amico 8 , Franca Fagioli 9 , Ivana Ferrero 10 , Franco Locatelli 5 , 11 , Rita Maccario 4 , Mario Marazzi 12 , Ornella Parolini 13 , Augusto Pessina 14 , Maria Luisa Torre 15
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were first isolated more than 50 years ago from the bone marrow. Currently MSCs may also be isolated from several alternative sources and they have been used in more than a hundred clinical trials worldwide to treat a wide variety of diseases. The MSCs mechanism of action is undefined and currently under investigation. For in vivo purposes MSCs must be produced in compliance with good manufacturing practices and this has stimulated research on MSCs characterization and safety. The objective of this review is to describe recent developments regarding MSCs properties, physiological effects, delivery, clinical applications and possible side effects.