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      Temporal Dependency of Emotional States at Work and Its Relationship With Dynamic Performance

      * , a , , a
      Social Psychological Bulletin
      emotion dynamics, emotional inertia, job performance, positive emotions, negative emotions

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          Emotion dynamics, how people’s emotions fluctuate across time, represent a key source of information about people’s psychological functioning and well-being. Investigating emotion dynamics in the workplace is particularly relevant, as affective experiences are intimately connected to organizational behavior and effectiveness. In this study, we examined the moderating role of emotional inertia in the dynamic association between both positive and negative emotions and self-rated job performance among a sample of 120 Italian workers (average age 41.4, SD = 14), which were prompted six times per day, for five working days. Emotional inertia refers to the extent that emotional states are self-predictive or carry on over time and is measured in terms of the autocorrelation of emotional states across time. Although inertia has been linked to several indicators of maladjustment, little is known about its correlates in terms of organizational behavior. Findings revealed that workers reporting high levels of positive emotions and high inertia rated their performance lower than workers high in positive emotions, but low in inertia. In contrast, the relation between negative emotions and performance was not significant for either high levels of inertia or low levels of inertia. Taken together, these results suggest the relevance of investigating the temporal dependency of emotional states at work.

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          In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented.
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                Author and article information

                Soc Psychol Bull
                Social Psychological Bulletin
                Soc. Psychol. Bull.
                31 July 2020
                : 15
                : 2
                : e2975
                [a ] Department of Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome , Rome, Italy
                [2]SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Warsaw, Poland
                [3]Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
                Author notes
                [* ]Department of Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, Via dei Marsi 78, 00185 Rome, Italy. evelina.delongis@ 123456uniroma1.it
                Copyright @ 2020

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 4.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 20 October 2019
                : 23 March 2020
                Research Article

                emotional inertia,negative emotions,emotion dynamics,positive emotions,job performance
                emotional inertia, negative emotions, emotion dynamics, positive emotions, job performance


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