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      Cultivar-Dependent Variation of the Cotton Rhizosphere and Endosphere Microbiome Under Field Conditions

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          Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae is a common soil-borne disease worldwide, affecting many economically important crop species. Soil microbes can influence plant disease development. We investigated rhizosphere and endosphere microbiomes in relation to cotton cultivars with differential susceptibility to Verticillium wilt. Soil samples from nine cotton cultivars were assessed for the density of V. dahliae microsclerotia; plants were assessed for disease development. We used amplicon sequencing to profile both bacterial and fungal communities. Unlike wilt severity, wilt inoculum density did not differ significantly among resistant and susceptible cultivars. Overall, there were no significant association of alpha diversity indices with wilt susceptibility. In contrast, there were clear differences in the overall rhizosphere and endosphere microbial communities, particularly bacteria, between resistant and susceptible cultivars. Many rhizosphere and endosphere microbial groups differed in their relative abundance between resistant and susceptible cultivars. These operational taxonomic units included several well-known taxonomy groups containing beneficial microbes, such as Bacillales, Pseudomonadales, Rhizobiales, and Trichoderma, which were higher in their relative abundance in resistant cultivars. Greenhouse studies with sterilized soil supported that beneficial microbes in the rhizosphere contribute to reduced wilt development. These findings suggested that specific rhizosphere and endosphere microbes may contribute to cotton resistance to V. dahliae.

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          Feed Your Friends: Do Plant Exudates Shape the Root Microbiome?

          Plant health in natural environments depends on interactions with complex and dynamic communities comprising macro- and microorganisms. While many studies have provided insights into the composition of rhizosphere microbiomes (rhizobiomes), little is known about whether plants shape their rhizobiomes. Here, we discuss physiological factors of plants that may govern plant-microbe interactions, focusing on root physiology and the role of root exudates. Given that only a few plant transport proteins are known to be involved in root metabolite export, we suggest novel families putatively involved in this process. Finally, building off of the features discussed in this review, and in analogy to well-known symbioses, we elaborate on a possible sequence of events governing rhizobiome assembly.
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            Rapid responses of soil microorganisms improve plant fitness in novel environments.

             Jay T. Lennon,  G Lau (2012)
            Global change is challenging plant and animal populations with novel environmental conditions, including increased atmospheric CO(2) concentrations, warmer temperatures, and altered precipitation regimes. In some cases, contemporary or "rapid" evolution can ameliorate the effects of global change. However, the direction and magnitude of evolutionary responses may be contingent upon interactions with other community members that also are experiencing novel environmental conditions. Here, we examine plant adaptation to drought stress in a multigeneration experiment that manipulated aboveground-belowground feedbacks between plants and soil microbial communities. Although drought stress reduced plant growth and accelerated plant phenologies, surprisingly, plant evolutionary responses to drought were relatively weak. In contrast, plant fitness in both drought and nondrought environments was linked strongly to the rapid responses of soil microbial community structure to moisture manipulations. Specifically, plants were most fit when their contemporary environmental conditions (wet vs. dry soil) matched the historical environmental conditions (wet vs. dry soil) of their associated microbial community. Together, our findings suggest that, when faced with environmental change, plants may not be limited to "adapt or migrate" strategies; instead, they also may benefit from association with interacting species, especially diverse soil microbial communities, that respond rapidly to environmental change.
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              Microbial interactions in the rhizosphere: beneficial influences of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on nutrient acquisition process. A review


                Author and article information

                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                20 December 2019
                : 10
                1Zhengzhou Research Base, State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology, Zhengzhou University , Zhengzhou, China
                2Institute of Cotton Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences , Anyang, China
                3NIAB East Malling Research, East Malling, West Malling , Kent, United Kingdom
                Author notes

                Edited by: Brigitte Mauch-Mani, Université de Neuchâtel, Switzerland

                Reviewed by: Flavia Pinzari, Council for Agricultural and Economics Research, Italy; Xiaoping Hu, Northwest A&F University, China

                *Correspondence: Zili Feng, fengzili@ 123456caas.cn ; Heqin Zhu, heqinanyang@ 123456163.com

                This article was submitted to Plant Microbe Interactions, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

                Copyright © 2019 Wei, Zhao, Xu, Feng, Shi, Deakin, Feng and Zhu

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 9, Tables: 3, Equations: 1, References: 76, Pages: 15, Words: 7191
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China 10.13039/501100001809
                Award ID: 31901938
                Funded by: National Key Research and Development Program of China Stem Cell and Translational Research 10.13039/501100013290
                Award ID: 2017YFD0201900
                Plant Science
                Original Research


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