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      Fungichromin Production by Streptomyces padanus PMS-702 for Controlling Cucumber Downy Mildew

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          Streptomyces padanus PMS-702 strain produces a polyene macrolide antibiotic fungichromin and displays antagonistic activities against many phytopathogenic fungi. In the present study, experimental formulations were assessed to improve the production of fungichromin, the efficacy of PMS-702 on the suppression of sporangial germination, and the reduction of cucumber downy mildew caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis. PMS-702 strain cultured in a soybean meal-glucose (SMG) medium led to low levels of fungichromin accumulation and sporangial germination suppression. Increasing medium compositions and adding plant oils (noticeably coconut oil) in SMG significantly increased fungichromin production from 68 to 1,999.6 μg/ml. Microscopic examination reveals that the resultant suspensions significantly reduced sporangial germination and caused cytoplasmic aggregation. Greenhouse trials reveal that the application of PMS-702 cultural suspensions reduced downy mildew severity considerably. The addition of Tween 80 into the synthetic medium while culturing PMS-702 further increased the suppressive efficacy of downy mildew severity, particularly when applied at 24 h before inoculation or co-applied with inoculum. Fungichromin at 50 μg/ml induced phytotoxicity showing minor necrosis surrounded with light yellowish halos on cucumber leaves. The concentration that leads to 90% inhibition (IC90) of sporangial germination was estimated to be around 10 μg/ml. The results provide a strong possibility of using the S. padanus PMS-702 strain as a biocontrol agent to control other plant pathogens.

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          Advances in utilization of renewable substrates for biosurfactant production

          Biosurfactants are amphiphilic molecules that have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties which partition preferentially at the interfaces such as liquid/liquid, gas/liquid or solid/liquid interfaces. Such characteristics enable emulsifying, foaming, detergency and dispersing properties. Their low toxicity and environmental friendly nature and the wide range of potential industrial applications in bioremediation, health care, oil and food processing industries makes them a highly sought after group of chemical compounds. Interest in them has also been encouraged because of the potential advantages they offer over their synthetic counterparts in many fields spanning environmental, food, biomedical, petrochemical and other industrial applications. Their large scale production and application however are currently restricted by the high cost of production and by the limited understanding of their interactions with cells and with the abiotic environment. In this paper, we review the current knowledge and latest advances in the search for cost effective renewable agro industrial alternative substrates for their production.
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            Characterization of streptomyces lydicus WYEC108 as a potential biocontrol agent against fungal root and seed rots.

            The actinomycete Streptomyces lydicus WYEC108 showed strong in vitro antagonism against various fungal plant pathogens in plate assays by producing extracellular antifungal metabolites. When Pythium ultimum or Rhizoctonia solani was grown in liquid medium with S. lydicus WYEC108, inhibition of growth of the fungi was observed. When WYEC108 spores or mycelia were used to coat pea seeds, the seeds were protected from invasion by P. ultimum in an oospore-enriched soil. While 100% of uncoated control seeds were infected by P. ultimum within 48 h after planting, less than 40% of coated seeds were infected. When the coated seeds were planted in soil 24 h prior to introduction of the pathogen, 96 h later, less than 30% of the germinating seeds were infected. Plant growth chamber studies were also carried out to test for plant growth effects and for suppression by S. lydicus WYEC108 of Pythium seed rot and root rot. When WYEC108 was applied as a spore-peat moss-sand formulation (10(8) CFU/g) to P. ultimum-infested sterile or nonsterile soil planted with pea and cotton seeds, significant increases in average plant stand, plant length, and plant weight were observed in both cases compared with untreated control plants grown in similar soils. WYEC108 hyphae colonized and were able to migrate downward with the root as it elongated. Over a period of 30 days, the population of WYEC108 colonized emerging roots of germinating seeds and remained stable (10(5) CFU/g) in the rhizosphere, whereas the nonrhizosphere population of WYEC108 declined at least 100-fold (from 10(5) to 10(3) or fewer CFU/g). The stability of the WYEC108 population incubated at 25 degrees C in the formulation, in sterile soil, and in nonsterile soil was also evaluated. In all three environments, the population of WYEC108 maintained its size for 90 days or more. When pea, cotton, and sweet corn seeds were placed into sterile and nonsterile soils containing 10(6) or more CFU of WYEC108 per g, it colonized the emerging roots. After a 1-week growing period, WYEC108 populations of 10(5) CFU/g (wet weight) of root were found on pea roots in the amended sterile soil environment versus 10(4) CFU/g in amended nonsterile soil. To further study the in vitro interaction between the streptomycete and P. ultimum, mycelia of WYEC108 were mixed with oospores of P. ultimum in agar, which was then used as a film to coat slide coverslips.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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              The cucurbit downy mildew pathogen Pseudoperonospora cubensis.

              Pseudoperonospora cubensis[(Berkeley & M. A. Curtis) Rostovzev], the causal agent of cucurbit downy mildew, is responsible for devastating losses worldwide of cucumber, cantaloupe, pumpkin, watermelon and squash. Although downy mildew has been a major issue in Europe since the mid-1980s, in the USA, downy mildew on cucumber has been successfully controlled for many years through host resistance. However, since the 2004 growing season, host resistance has been effective no longer and, as a result, the control of downy mildew on cucurbits now requires an intensive fungicide programme. Chemical control is not always feasible because of the high costs associated with fungicides and their application. Moreover, the presence of pathogen populations resistant to commonly used fungicides limits the long-term viability of chemical control. This review summarizes the current knowledge of taxonomy, disease development, virulence, pathogenicity and control of Ps. cubensis. In addition, topics for future research that aim to develop both short- and long-term control measures of cucurbit downy mildew are discussed. Kingdom Straminipila; Phylum Oomycota; Class Oomycetes; Order Peronosporales; Family Peronosporaceae; Genus Pseudoperonospora; Species Pseudoperonospora cubensis. Angular chlorotic lesions bound by leaf veins on the foliage of cucumber. Symptoms vary on different cucurbit species and varieties, specifically in terms of lesion development, shape and size. Infection of cucurbits by Ps. cubensis impacts fruit yield and overall plant health. Sporulation on the underside of leaves results in the production of sporangia that are dispersed by wind. On arrival on a susceptible host, sporangia germinate in free water on the leaf surface, producing biflagellate zoospores that swim to and encyst on stomata, where they form germ tubes. An appressorium is produced and forms a penetration hypha, which enters the leaf tissue through the stomata. Hyphae grow through the mesophyll and establish haustoria, specialized structures for the transfer of nutrients and signals between host and pathogen. Management of downy mildew in Europe requires the use of tolerant cucurbit cultivars in conjunction with fungicide applications. In the USA, an aggressive fungicide programme, with sprays every 5-7 days for cucumber and every 7-10 days for other cucurbits, has been necessary to control outbreaks and to prevent crop loss. http://www.daylab.plp.msu.edu/pseudoperonospora-cubensis/ (Day Laboratory website with research advances in downy mildew); http://veggies.msu.edu/ (Hausbeck Laboratory website with downy mildew news for growers); http://cdm.ipmpipe.org/ (Cucurbit downy mildew forecasting homepage); http://ipm.msu.edu/downymildew.htm (Downy mildew information for Michigan's vegetable growers). © 2010 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2010 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

                Author and article information

                Plant Pathol J
                Plant Pathol. J
                The Plant Pathology Journal
                Korean Society of Plant Pathology
                August 2019
                01 August 2019
                : 35
                : 4
                : 341-350
                [1 ]Department of Plant Pathology, National Chung-Hsing University (NCHU), Taichung 40227, Taiwan
                [2 ]Innovation and Development Center of Sustainable Agriculture (IDCSA), NCHU Taichung 40227, Taiwan
                Author notes
                [* ]Co-corresponding authors: Kuang-Ren Chung, Phone) +886-4-2284-0780 ext. 301, FAX) +886-4-2287-7585, E-mail) krchung@ 123456nchu.edu.tw . Jenn-Wen Huang, Phone) +886-4-2284-0780 ext. 351, FAX) +886-4-2287-7585, E-mail) jwhuang@ 123456dragon.nchu.edu.tw

                Handling Editor : Sang, Mee Kyung

                © The Korean Society of Plant Pathology

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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