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      Novelties in Brazilian Waltheria L. (Byttnerioideae, Malvaceae): two new species and one re-establishment

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          Abstract

          ABSTRACT This work validates two Waltheria species endemic to campo rupestre with complete descriptions, illustrations, updated geographical distributions and comments on taxonomic affinities. Waltheria biribiriensis and Waltheria terminans are restricted to the Southern Espinhaço Province in eastern South America, occurring on mountain tops where campo rupestre vegetation prevails. Furthermore, Waltheria brachypetala, a species of dry deciduous forests in Brazil that was long considered as conspecific with W. ferruginea due to its shrubby lifeform and similar indumentum, is re-established based on differences of phyllotaxy, blade shape and inflorescence type. The first occurrence records of W. brachypetala in the state of Paraíba are also provided, as well as the first record in the Atlantic Forest domain. Lastly, a lectotype is designated for W. ferruginea.

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          Most cited references 15

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          ConR : An R package to assist large‐scale multispecies preliminary conservation assessments using distribution data

          Abstract The Red List Categories and the accompanying five criteria developed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) provide an authoritative and comprehensive methodology to assess the conservation status of organisms. Red List criterion B, which principally uses distribution data, is the most widely used to assess conservation status, particularly of plant species. No software package has previously been available to perform large‐scale multispecies calculations of the three main criterion B parameters [extent of occurrence (EOO), area of occupancy (AOO) and an estimate of the number of locations] and provide preliminary conservation assessments using an automated batch process. We developed ConR, a dedicated R package, as a rapid and efficient tool to conduct large numbers of preliminary assessments, thereby facilitating complete Red List assessment. ConR (1) calculates key geographic range parameters (AOO and EOO) and estimates the number of locations sensu IUCN needed for an assessment under criterion B; (2) uses this information in a batch process to generate preliminary assessments of multiple species; (3) summarize the parameters and preliminary assessments in a spreadsheet; and (4) provides a visualization of the results by generating maps suitable for the submission of full assessments to the IUCN Red List. ConR can be used for any living organism for which reliable georeferenced distribution data are available. As distributional data for taxa become increasingly available via large open access datasets, ConR provides a novel, timely tool to guide and accelerate the work of the conservation and taxonomic communities by enabling practitioners to conduct preliminary assessments simultaneously for hundreds or even thousands of species in an efficient and time‐saving way.
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            Phylogeny of the core Malvales: evidence from ndhF sequence data.

            The monophyly of the group comprising the core malvalean families, Bombacaceae, Malvaceae, Sterculiaceae, and Tiliaceae, was recently confirmed by molecular studies, but the internal structure of this clade is poorly understood. In this study, we examined sequences of the chloroplast ndhF gene (aligned length 2226 bp) from 70 exemplars representing 35 of the 39 putative tribes of core Malvales. The monophyly of one traditional family, the Malvaceae, was supported in the trees resulting from these data, but the other three families, as traditionally circumscribed, are nonmonophyletic. In addition, the following relationships were well supported: (1) a clade, /Malvatheca, consisting of traditional Malvaceae and Bombacaceae (except some members of tribe Durioneae), plus Fremontodendron and Chiranthodendron, which are usually treated as Sterculiaceae; (2) a clade, /Malvadendrina, supported by a unique 21-bp (base pair) deletion and consisting of /Malvatheca, plus five additional subclades, including representatives of Sterculiaceae and Tiliaceae, and Durionieae; (3) a clade, /Byttneriina, with genera traditionally assigned to several tribes of Tiliaceae, plus exemplars of tribes Byttnerieae, Hermannieae, and Lasiopetaleae of Sterculiaceae. The most striking departures from traditional classifications are the following: Durio and relatives appear to be more closely related to Helicteres and Reevesia (Sterculiaceae) than to Bombacaceae; several genera traditionally considered as Bombacaceae (Camptostemon, Matisia, Phragmotheca, and Quararibea) or Sterculiaceae (Chiranthodendron and Fremontodendron) appear as sister lineages to the traditional Malvaceae; the traditional tribe Helictereae (Sterculiaceae) is polyphyletic; and Sterculiaceae and Tiliaceae, as traditionally circumscribed, represent polyphyletic groups that cannot sensibly be maintained with their traditional limits for purposes of classification. We discuss morphological characters and conclude that there has been extensive homoplasy in characters previously used to delineate major taxonomic groups in core Malvales. The topologies here also suggest that /Malvatheca do not have as a synapormophy monothecate anthers, as has been previously supposed but, instead, may be united by dithecate, transversely septate (polysporangiate) anthers, as found in basal members of both /Bombacoideae and /Malvoideae. Thus, "monothecate" anthers may have been derived at least twice, independently, within the /Bombacoideae (core Bombacaceae) and /Malvoideae (traditional Malvaceae).
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              The age of chocolate: a diversification history of Theobroma and Malvaceae

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                abb
                Acta Botanica Brasilica
                Acta Bot. Bras.
                Sociedade Botânica do Brasil (Belo Horizonte, BA, Brazil )
                0102-3306
                1677-941X
                September 2020
                : 34
                : 3
                : 449-459
                Affiliations
                Recife Pernambuco orgnameUniversidade Federal de Pernambuco orgdiv1Centro de Biociências orgdiv2Departamento de Botânica Brazil
                Recife Pernambuco orgnameUniversidade Federal de Pernambuco orgdiv1Centro de Biociências orgdiv2Departamento de Botânica Brazil
                São Paulo São Paulo orgnameUniversidade de São Paulo orgdiv1Instituto de Biociências orgdiv2Departamento de Botânica Brazil
                Article
                S0102-33062020000300449 S0102-3306(20)03400300449
                10.1590/0102-33062020abb0088

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 26, Pages: 11
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