+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Therapeutic equivalence requires pharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic identities: true bioequivalence of a generic product of intravenous metronidazole.

      1 ,

      Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Animal models of infection have been used to demonstrate the therapeutic failure of "bioequivalent" generic products, but their applicability for this purpose requires the accurate identification of those products that are truly bioequivalent. Here, we present data comparing one intravenous generic product of metronidazole with the innovator product in a neutropenic mouse thigh anaerobic infection model. Simultaneous experiments allowed comparisons (generic versus innovator) of potency and the concentration of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), analytical chemistry (liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry [LC/MS]), in vitro susceptibility testing, single-dose serum pharmacokinetics (PK) in infected mice, and in vivo pharmacodynamics (PD) against Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 25825 in synergy with Escherichia coli SIG-1 in the neutropenic mouse thigh anaerobic infection model. The Hill dose-response model followed by curve-fitting analysis was used to calculate and compare primary and secondary PD parameters. The generic and the innovator products were identical in terms of the concentration and potency of the API, chromatographic and spectrographic profiles, MIC and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) (2.0 mg/liter), and mouse PK. We found no differences between products in bacteriostatic doses (BD) (15 to 22 mg/kg of body weight per day) or the doses needed to kill 1 log (1LKD) (21 to 29 mg/kg per day) or 2 logs (2LKD) (28 to 54 mg/kg per day) of B. fragilis under dosing schedules of every 12 h (q12h), q8h, or q6h. The area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h in the steady state divided by the MIC (AUC/MIC ratio) was the best PD index to predict the antibacterial efficacy of metronidazole (adjusted coefficient of determination [AdjR(2)] = 84.6%), and its magnitude to reach bacteriostasis in vivo (56.6 ± 5.17 h) or to kill the first (90.8 ± 9.78 h) and second (155.5 ± 22.2 h) logs was the same for both products. Animal models of infection allow a thorough demonstration of the therapeutic equivalence of generic antimicrobials.

          Related collections

          Author and article information

          Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
          Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
          May 2012
          : 56
          : 5
          [1 ] Grupo Investigador de Problemas en Enfermedades Infecciosas, Department of Pharmacology, University of Antioquia Medical School, Medellin, Colombia.


          Comment on this article