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      Gallic Acid Impedes Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Progression via Suppression of EGFR-Dependent CARM1-PELP1 Complex

      1 , 2

      Drug Design, Development and Therapy

      Dove

      gallic acid, EGFR, CARM1, PELP1, non-small cell lung cancer, CARM1-PELP1 complex

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          Abstract

          Background

          Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a common cause of cancer-related deaths. This study identified the regulatory pattern of gallic acid in NSCLC.

          Methods

          Human NSCLC cells were treated with different doses of gallic acid, after which, MTT assay and flow cytometry were performed to determine the survival and apoptotic rate of human NSCLC cells. Then, co-immunoprecipitation assay was performed to analyze the relationships between gallic acid, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and CARM1-PELP1. Next, we analyzed whether PELP1, CARM1 and EGFR were associated with the effects of gallic acid on NSCLC cells by conducting rescue experiments. The expression pattern of phosphorylated EGFR, EGFR, Ki67, as well as Fas, FasL and Caspase 3 proteins in cancer cells or xenografts was measured by Western blot analysis. Lastly, the role of gallic acid in the tumor growth was assessed in nude mice.

          Results

          The ideal dose of gallic acid that presented good suppressive effect on NSCLC cells were 30 μM, 50 μM and 75 μM, respectively. Gallic acid played an inhibiting role in the activation of EGFR, which further reduced the formation of CARM1-PELP1 complex, ultimately repressed the proliferation and elevated apoptosis of NSCLC cells. Meanwhile, CARM1 repression led to decreased growth, proliferation and migration abilities of NSCLC cells. Animal experiments confirmed that gallic acid contributed to the inhibition of tumor growth in vivo.

          Conclusion

          To sum up, gallic acid could potentially prevent NSCLC progression via inhibition of EGFR activation and impairment of the binding of CARM1 to PELP1, highlighting a novel therapy to dampen NSCLC progression.

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          Most cited references 21

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          CARM1 methylates chromatin remodeling factor BAF155 to enhance tumor progression and metastasis.

          Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1), a coactivator for various cancer-relevant transcription factors, is overexpressed in breast cancer. To elucidate the functions of CARM1 in tumorigenesis, we knocked out CARM1 from several breast cancer cell lines using Zinc-Finger Nuclease technology, which resulted in drastic phenotypic and biochemical changes. The CARM1 KO cell lines enabled identification of CARM1 substrates, notably the SWI/SNF core subunit BAF155. Methylation of BAF155 at R1064 was found to be an independent prognostic biomarker for cancer recurrence and to regulate breast cancer cell migration and metastasis. Furthermore, CARM1-mediated BAF155 methylation affects gene expression by directing methylated BAF155 to unique chromatin regions (e.g., c-Myc pathway genes). Collectively, our studies uncover a mechanism by which BAF155 acquires tumorigenic functions via arginine methylation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Estrogen receptor signaling as a target for novel breast cancer therapeutics.

            In breast cancer (BC) epithelial cells, the mitogenic action of estradiol is transduced through binding to two receptors, ERα and ERβ, which act as transcription factors. Anti-estrogens (AEs) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are used clinically to arrest the estrogen-dependent growth of BC. In the case of AE or AI resistance, Herceptin or lapatinib may be used to inhibit growth factors. Estrogen effects are mediated not only through nuclear ERs but also through cytoplasmic/membrane ERs and G-protein-coupled ERs. These estrogen-binding systems associate with various proteins that direct cell cycle signaling, proliferation and survival. The partners of nuclear ER include SRC1-3, HDACs and ERβ itself as well as newly identified proteins, such as E6-AP, LKB1, PELP1, PAX-2 and FOXA1. The partners of extra-nuclear ERα include PI3K and the tyrosine kinase Src. These various factors are all potential targets for therapeutic intervention. In addition, BC proliferation is enhanced by insulin and EGF, which stimulate signaling through the MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways by activation of the IGF-1R and EGFR axes, respectively. These pathways are tightly interconnected with ER-activated signaling, and membrane ERα forms complexes with Src and PI3K. Chemokine-mediated signaling also modulates the estrogen response. Inhibiting these pathways with specific inhibitors or activating some of the pathways by gene manipulation may be therapeutically valuable for arresting BC cell cycle progression and for inducing apoptosis to antagonize hormone-resistance. Here, we review some newly identified putatively targetable ER partners and highlight the need to develop tumor-targeting drug carrier systems affecting both the tumor cells and the tumor environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Gallic acid induces apoptosis via caspase-3 and mitochondrion-dependent pathways in vitro and suppresses lung xenograft tumor growth in vivo.

              Several studies have shown that gallic acid (GA) induces apoptosis in different cancer cell lines, whereas the mechanism of action of GA-induced apoptosis at the molecular level in human non-small-cell lung cancer NCI-H460 cells is not well-known. Here, GA decreasing the percentage of viable NCI-H460 cells was investigated; GA-induced apoptosis involved G2/M phase arrest and intracellular Ca(2+) production, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)), and caspase-3 activation. The efficacious induction of apoptosis and DNA damage was observed at 50-500 microM for 24 and/or 48 h as examined by flow cytometry, DAPI staining, and Comet assay methods. Western blotting and flow cytometric analysis also demonstrated that GA increased protein levels of GADD153 and GRP78, activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3, loss of DeltaPsi(m) and cytochrome c, and AIF release from mitochondria. Moreover, apoptosome formation and activation of caspase cascade were associated with apoptotic cell death. GA increased Bax and Bad protein levels and decreased Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL levels. GA may also induce apoptosis through a caspase-independent AIF pathway. In nude mice bearing NCI-H460 xenograft tumors, GA inhibited tumor growth in vivo. The data suggest that GA induced apoptosis in NCI-H460 lung cancer cells via a caspase-3 and mitochondrion-dependent pathway and inhibited the in vivo tumor growth of NCI-H460 cells in xenograft models.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                DDDT
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                23 April 2020
                2020
                : 14
                : 1583-1592
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Oncology of Mongolian-Western Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia University for Nationalities , Tongliao 028007, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Mongolian Medicine Hematology & Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia University for Nationalities , Tongliao 028007, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Burenbatu Bao Department of Mongolian Medicine Hematology & Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia University for Nationalities , No. 1742, Huolinhe Street, Horqin District, Tongliao028007, Inner Mongolia, People’s Republic of China Tel/Fax +86-475-8215816 Email wangdong7776@126.com
                Article
                228123
                10.2147/DDDT.S228123
                7186892
                © 2020 Wang and Bao.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, References: 32, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Original Research

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