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      Climate change induces multiple risks to boreal forests and forestry in Finland: A literature review

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          Abstract

          Climate change induces multiple abiotic and biotic risks to forests and forestry. Risks in different spatial and temporal scales must be considered to ensure preconditions for sustainable multifunctional management of forests for different ecosystem services. For this purpose, the present review article summarizes the most recent findings on major abiotic and biotic risks to boreal forests in Finland under the current and changing climate, with the focus on windstorms, heavy snow loading, drought and forest fires and major insect pests and pathogens of trees. In general, the forest growth is projected to increase mainly in northern Finland. In the south, the growing conditions may become suboptimal, particularly for Norway spruce. Although the wind climate does not change remarkably, wind damage risk will increase especially in the south, because of the shortening of the soil frost period. The risk of snow damage is anticipated to increase in the north and decrease in the south. Increasing drought in summer will boost the risk of large‐scale forest fires. Also, the warmer climate increases the risk of bark beetle outbreaks and the wood decay by Heterobasidion root rot in coniferous forests. The probability of detrimental cascading events, such as those caused by a large‐scale wind damage followed by a widespread bark beetle outbreak, will increase remarkably in the future. Therefore, the simultaneous consideration of the biotic and abiotic risks is essential.

          Abstract

          In Finland, projected climate change acts to increase forest growth by the mid‐21st century, particularly in the northern parts of the country. Nonetheless, in the south, the growing conditions may become suboptimal for Norway spruce due to drought and excessively high temperatures. Biotic damages, mainly caused by Spruce bark beetles and Heterobasidions, are anticipated to increase in southern Finland. Abiotic disturbances due to windstorms, drought and forest fires will be exacerbated especially in the south with snow damages in the north. Climate change likewise increases detrimental cascading events, for example, large‐scale wind damages followed by a widespread bark beetle outbreak.

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          Most cited references 94

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          Ecological Impacts of Deer Overabundance

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            Tree diversity reduces herbivory by forest insects.

            Biodiversity loss from plant communities is often acknowledged to affect primary production but little is known about effects on herbivores. We conducted a meta-analysis of a worldwide data set of 119 studies to compare herbivory in single-species and mixed forests. This showed a significant reduction of herbivory in more diverse forests but this varied with the host specificity of insects. In diverse forests, herbivory by oligophagous species was virtually always reduced, whereas the response of polyphagous species was variable. Further analyses revealed that the composition of tree mixtures may be more important than species richness per se because diversity effects on herbivory were greater when mixed forests comprised taxonomically more distant tree species, and when the proportion of non-host trees was greater than that of host trees. These findings provide new support for the role of biodiversity in ecosystem functioning across trophic levels.
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              Global review and synthesis of trends in observed terrestrial near-surface wind speeds: Implications for evaporation

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                ari.venalainen@fmi.fi
                Journal
                Glob Chang Biol
                Glob Chang Biol
                10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2486
                GCB
                Global Change Biology
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                1354-1013
                1365-2486
                13 June 2020
                August 2020
                : 26
                : 8 ( doiID: 10.1111/gcb.v26.8 )
                : 4178-4196
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Finnish Meteorological Institute Helsinki Finland
                [ 2 ] School of Forest Sciences University of Eastern Finland Joensuu Finland
                [ 3 ] UPM Forest Tampere Finland
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence

                Ari Venäläinen, Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 503, FI‐00101 Helsinki, Finland.

                Email: ari.venalainen@ 123456fmi.fi

                Article
                GCB15183
                10.1111/gcb.15183
                7383623
                32449267
                © 2020 The Authors. Global Change Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 11, Tables: 0, Pages: 19, Words: 13123
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: Academy of Finland , open-funder-registry 10.13039/501100002341;
                Award ID: 314224
                Categories
                Research Review
                Research Review
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                August 2020
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:5.8.6 mode:remove_FC converted:27.07.2020

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