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      The Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of I Ks Potassium Channel Genes and Their Association with Atrial Fibrillation in a Chinese Population

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          Recent studies suggest that genetic mutation of the slow delayed rectifier potassium channel ( I<sub>Ks</sub>) may underlie atrial fibrillation (AF). We investigated the association between AF and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes KCNQ1, KCNE1 and KCNE4 associated with this channel. Common non-synonymous SNPs in KCNQ1 and KCNE1 known to be frequent in Asian people were selected and direct sequencing of KCNE4 was performed to identify possible SNPs. The AF group consisted of 142 hospitalized patients with AF, the community control group consisted of 120 subjects, and a ward control group consisted of 118 hospitalized patients without AF. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed to determine the genotypes. The minor allele frequencies of P448R, R519H, G643S for KCNQ1 and G38S and D85N for KCNE1 in the AF group, the community control group and the ward control group were 9.9, 7.9, 9.3%; 0, 0, –; 4.3, 4.2, 1.7%; 28.4, 31.7, 29.7%; 0.7, 0.4%, –, respectively. There was no significant association between these SNPs and AF phenotype. There were eight SNPs in the whole length of KCNE4 plus 1,000 bases upstream of this gene including the non-synonymous SNP E145D. Logistical regression analysis revealed a difference in the distribution of KCNE4 E145D in the AF and the community control group (minor allele frequency was 34.0 versus 27.1% respectively, OR = 1.66, p = 0.044). We provided the frequencies of non-synonymous SNPs of KCNQ1 and KCNE1 in Chinese population; none of these SNPs was associated with AF. But KCNE4 E145D may be associated with the AF phenotype.

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          KCNQ1 gain-of-function mutation in familial atrial fibrillation.

          Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia whose molecular etiology is poorly understood. We studied a family with hereditary persistent AF and identified the causative mutation (S140G) in the KCNQ1 (KvLQT1) gene on chromosome 11p15.5. The KCNQ1 gene encodes the pore-forming alpha subunit of the cardiac I(Ks) channel (KCNQ1/KCNE1), the KCNQ1/KCNE2 and the KCNQ1/KCNE3 potassium channels. Functional analysis of the S140G mutant revealed a gain-of-function effect on the KCNQ1/KCNE1 and the KCNQ1/KCNE2 currents, which contrasts with the dominant negative or loss-of-function effects of the KCNQ1 mutations previously identified in patients with long QT syndrome. Thus, the S140G mutation is likely to initiate and maintain AF by reducing action potential duration and effective refractory period in atrial myocytes.
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            Atrial fibrillation as a self-sustaining arrhythmia independent of focal discharge.

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              Identification of a KCNE2 gain-of-function mutation in patients with familial atrial fibrillation.

              Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia encountered in clinical practice. We first reported an S140G mutation of KCNQ1, an alpha subunit of potassium channels, in one Chinese kindred with AF. However, the molecular defects and cellular mechanisms in most patients with AF remain to be identified. We evaluated 28 unrelated Chinese kindreds with AF and sequenced eight genes of potassium channels (KCNQ1, HERG, KCNE1, KCNE2, KCNE3, KCNE4, KCNE5, and KCNJ2). An arginine-to-cysteine mutation at position 27 (R27C) of KCNE2, the beta subunit of the KCNQ1-KCNE2 channel responsible for a background potassium current, was found in 2 of the 28 probands. The mutation was present in all affected members in the two kindreds and was absent in 462 healthy unrelated Chinese subjects. Similar to KCNQ1 S140G, the mutation had a gain-of-function effect on the KCNQ1-KCNE2 channel; unlike long QT syndrome-associated KCNE2 mutations, it did not alter HERG-KCNE2 current. The mutation did not alter the functions of the HCN channel family either. Thus, KCNE2 R27C is a gain-of-function mutation associated with the initiation and/or maintenance of AF.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                August 2007
                29 September 2006
                : 108
                : 2
                : 97-103
                aCenter for Arrhythmia Diagnosis and Treatment, cDivision of Population Genetics and Prevention, Cardiovascular Institute and Fuwai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, dNational Human Genome Center at Beijing, Beijing, bThe First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China; eDepartment of Medicine/Cardiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisc., USA
                95943 Cardiology 2007;108:97–103
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Tables: 6, References: 15, Pages: 7
                Original Research


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