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      Nanoparticles for pest control: current status and future perspectives

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          Most cited references133

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          Towards a definition of inorganic nanoparticles from an environmental, health and safety perspective.

          The regulation of engineered nanoparticles requires a widely agreed definition of such particles. Nanoparticles are routinely defined as particles with sizes between about 1 and 100 nm that show properties that are not found in bulk samples of the same material. Here we argue that evidence for novel size-dependent properties alone, rather than particle size, should be the primary criterion in any definition of nanoparticles when making decisions about their regulation for environmental, health and safety reasons. We review the size-dependent properties of a variety of inorganic nanoparticles and find that particles larger than about 30 nm do not in general show properties that would require regulatory scrutiny beyond that required for their bulk counterparts.
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            Mesoporous silica nanoparticles deliver DNA and chemicals into plants.

            Surface-functionalized silica nanoparticles can deliver DNA and drugs into animal cells and tissues. However, their use in plants is limited by the cell wall present in plant cells. Here we show a honeycomb mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) system with 3-nm pores that can transport DNA and chemicals into isolated plant cells and intact leaves. We loaded the MSN with the gene and its chemical inducer and capped the ends with gold nanoparticles to keep the molecules from leaching out. Uncapping the gold nanoparticles released the chemicals and triggered gene expression in the plants under controlled-release conditions. Further developments such as pore enlargement and multifunctionalization of these MSNs may offer new possibilities in target-specific delivery of proteins, nucleotides and chemicals in plant biotechnology.
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              Interaction of nanoparticles with edible plants and their possible implications in the food chain.

              The uptake, bioaccumulation, biotransformation, and risks of nanomaterials (NMs) for food crops are still not well understood. Very few NMs and plant species have been studied, mainly at the very early growth stages of the plants. Most of the studies, except one with multiwalled carbon nanotubes performed on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and another with ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) on ryegrass, reported the effect of NMs on seed germination or 15-day-old seedlings. Very few references describe the biotransformation of NMs in food crops, and the possible transmission of the NMs to the next generation of plants exposed to NMs is unknown. The possible biomagnification of NPs in the food chain is also unknown.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Pest Science
                J Pest Sci
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1612-4758
                1612-4766
                January 2018
                August 21 2017
                January 2018
                : 91
                : 1
                : 1-15
                Article
                10.1007/s10340-017-0898-0
                91948732-ab0b-4f50-95b5-95c014e2977d
                © 2018

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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