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      Reduction of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection in swine alveolar macrophages by porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2)-induced interferon-alpha


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          Two common viral pathogens of swine, namely, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), were investigated in regard to their effects on monolayer cultures of swine alveolar macrophages (AMs). The purpose was to identify selected cellular changes and responses potentially associated with the clinical reactions of pigs infected with either or both of these viruses. Measurements included the (1) absolute and relative numbers of infected, viable, and apoptotic cells; (2) distribution of viral antigens; (3) levels of interferon-alpha (IFN-α) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) produced and their association with the extent of virus-induced cytopathology. Four groups of AMs were studied, including mock-infected, PCV2 alone-infected (PCV2-A), PRRSV alone-infected (PRRSV-A), and PCV2 and PRRSV dually infected (PCV2/PRRSV) groups. The AMs of PCV2-A group had high antigen-containing rate without cell death. There was a marked increase in cell death and apoptosis in PRRSV-A group. However, a lower PRRSV-induced infectious rate, cell death, and apoptosis were seen in PCV2/PRRSV group. High levels of IFN-α production were detected in PCV2-infected groups, but not in mock-infected and PRRSV-A groups. The PRRSV-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) on MARC-145 cells or swine AMs was markedly reduced by pre-incubation of the cells with UV-treated or non-UV-treated supernatants of PCV2-infected AMs. In addition, the reduction in CPE was abolished when the supernatants of PCV2-infected AMs were pre-treated with a mouse anti-recombinant porcine IFN-α antibody. The results suggest that swine AMs were an important reservoir of PCV2; PCV2 infection reduced PRRSV infection and PRRSV-associated CPE in PCV2/PRRSV AMs; the reduction of PRRSV infection in AMs was mediated by IFN-α generated by PCV2 infection. The reduced PRRSV-associated CPE in AMs and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production may lead to a more severe pneumonic lesion in those dually infected pigs.

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          Experimental reproduction of severe disease in CD/CD pigs concurrently infected with type 2 porcine circovirus and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

          Three-week-old cesarean-derived colostrum-deprived (CD/CD) pigs were inoculated with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2, n = 19), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV, n = 13), concurrent PCV2 and PRRSV (PCV2/PRRSV, n = 17), or a sham inoculum (n = 12) to compare the independent and combined effects of these agents. Necropsies were performed at 7, 10, 14, 21, 35, and 49 days postinoculation (dpi) or when pigs became moribund. By 10 dpi, PCV2/PRRSV-inoculated pigs had severe dyspnea, lethargy, and occasional icterus; after 10 dpi, mortality in this group was 10/11 (91%), and all PCV2/ PRRSV-inoculated pigs were dead by 20 dpi. PCV2-inoculated pigs developed lethargy and sporadic icterus, and 8/19 (42%) developed exudative epidermitis; mortality was 5/19 (26%). PRRSV-inoculated pigs developed dyspnea and mild lethargy that resolved by 28 dpi. Microscopic lesions consistent with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) were present in both PCV2- and PCV2/PRRSV-inoculated pigs and included lymphoid depletion, necrotizing hepatitis, mild necrotizing bronchiolitis, and infiltrates of macrophages that occasionally contained basophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in lymphoid and other tissues. PCV2/ PRRSV-inoculated pigs also had severe proliferative interstitial pneumonia and more consistent hepatic lesions. The most severe lesions contained the greatest number of PCV2 antigen-containing cells. PRRSV-inoculated pigs had moderate proliferative interstitial pneumonia but did not develop bronchiolar or hepatic lesions or lymphoid depletion. All groups remained seronegative to porcine parvovirus. The results indicate that 1) PCV2 coinfection increases the severity of PRRSV-induced interstitial pneumonia in CD/CD pigs and 2) PCV2 but not PRRSV induces the lymphoid depletion, granulomatous inflammation, and necrotizing hepatitis characteristic of PMWS.
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            Isolation of circovirus from lesions of pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome.

            Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), an apparently new disease, has been recognized in swine herds in western Canada. Young pigs with this disease have progressive weight loss, tachypnea, dyspnea, and jaundice, accompanied by interstitial pneumonia, lymphadenopathy, hepatitis, and nephritis. We examined more than 400 pigs from more than 70 herds in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba with cases of PMWS. A small virus was isolated from a range of tissues from 8 of 8 affected pigs examined. The agent was identified as a circovirus-like virus using electron microscopy, immunohistochemical staining with porcine and rabbit immune serum, and in situ hybridization. Immunohistochemical examination of tissues from more than 100 affected pigs has revealed widespread viral antigen, often contained in circovirus-like inclusion bodies, in lesions from numerous organs. Although Koch's postulates remain to be fulfilled, these results demonstrate a high degree of association between the presence of the circovirus-like virus and PMWS in affected swine.
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              Tumor necrosis, cachexia, shock, and inflammation: a common mediator.


                Author and article information

                Vet Microbiol
                Vet. Microbiol
                Veterinary Microbiology
                Elsevier B.V.
                3 June 2005
                1 July 2005
                3 June 2005
                : 108
                : 3
                : 167-177
                [a ]Graduate Institute of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC
                [b ]The Center for Drug Evaluation, Taipei 100, Taiwan, ROC
                [c ]Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2065, USA
                [d ]Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chia Yi University, Chia Yi 600, Taiwan, ROC
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. Present address: Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Bio-resources and Agriculture, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC. Tel.: +886 2 2362 1965; fax: +886 2 2366 1475. pang@ 123456ntu.edu.tw
                Copyright © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                : 3 November 2004
                : 9 March 2005
                : 17 March 2005

                Veterinary medicine
                pcv2,prrsv,interferon-alpha,swine alveolar macrophage
                Veterinary medicine
                pcv2, prrsv, interferon-alpha, swine alveolar macrophage


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