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      Rhodotorula mucilaginosa Keratitis: A rare fungus from Eastern India


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          Rhodotorula mucilaginosa rarely cause keratitis in immunocompromised individuals. A 30 year old male with history of minor trauma presented with cotton wool like stromal infiltration and hypopyon in left eye. Microbiological examination of corneal scraping showed fungal hyphae and yeast cells in direct smear. Molecular identification of the organism was performed which showed 100% homology with Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Management of these cases is difficult often necessitating surgical procedures. However further reports are necessary to understand the disease and establish a treatment protocol.

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          Most cited references13

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          New and emerging yeast pathogens.

          K C Hazen (1995)
          The most common yeast species that act as agents of human disease are Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, and Cryptococcus neoformans. The incidence of infections by other yeasts has increased during the past decade. The most evident emerging pathogens are Malassezia furfur, Trichosporon beigelii, Rhodotorula species, Hansenula anomala, Candida lusitaniae, and Candida krusei. Organisms once considered environmental contaminants or only industrially important, such as Candida utilis and Candida lipolytica, have now been implicated as agents of fungemia, onychomycosis, and systemic disease. The unusual yeasts primarily infect immunocompromised patients, newborns, and the elderly. The role of central venous catheter removal and antifungal therapy in patient management is controversial. The antibiograms of the unusual yeasts range from resistant to the most recent azoles and amphotericin B to highly susceptible to all antifungal agents. Current routine methods for yeast identification may be insufficient to identify the unusual yeasts within 2 days after isolation. The recognition of unusual yeasts as agents of sometimes life-threatening infection and their unpredictable antifungal susceptibilities increase the burden on the clinical mycology laboratory to pursue complete species identification and MIC determinations. Given the current and evolving medical practices for management of seriously ill patients, further evaluations of the clinically important data about these yeasts are needed.
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            Rhodotorula infection. A systematic review of 128 cases from literature.

            Rhodotorula is an emerging opportunistic pathogen, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Many cases of fungemia associated with catheters, endocarditis, peritonitis, meningitis, and endophthalmitis are infections incited by this yeast. The main purpose of this study was to review all cases of Rhodotorula infection reported in the literature and to describe risk factors, underlying conditions and outcome. From 128 cases, 79% were fungemia (103 cases), 7% eye infections (nine cases) and 5% (six cases) peritonitis associated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Eighty seven percent of Rhodotorula infections are associated with underlying immunosuppression or cancer. The most common isolated risk factor associated with Rhodotorula infection was the use of a central venous catheter, which was found in 83.4% of Rhodotorula fungemia (86 cases). Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was the most common species of fungemia (74% of cases), followed by Rhodotorula glutinis with 7.7%. The species was not identified in 17% of the cases of fungemias. Amphotericin was the drug of choice in the treatment of fungemia and most of the eye infections were treated with topical amphotericin, although all patients lost their vision. All peritonitis cases associated with continous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis needed to have the Tenckoff catheter changed. The overall mortality of Rhodotorula infection was 12.6%.
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              Risk of fungemia due to Rhodotorula and antifungal susceptibility testing of Rhodotorula isolates.

              Rhodotorula infections occur among patients with immunosuppression and/or central venous catheters. Using standardized methods (NCCLS M27-A), we determined the antifungal susceptibilities of 10 Rhodotorula bloodstream infection isolates. Patient information was collected for clinical correlation. The MICs of amphotericin B and posaconazole were the lowest, and the MICs of triazoles and echinocandins were higher than those of other antifungal agents.

                Author and article information

                Indian J Ophthalmol
                Indian J Ophthalmol
                Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                March 2014
                : 62
                : 3
                : 341-344
                [1 ]Ocular Microbiology Laboratory Services, Priyamvada Birla Aravind Eye Hospital, 10 Loudon Street, Kolkata, Midnapore, India
                [2 ]Cornea & Refractive Services, Priyamvada Birla Aravind Eye Hospital, 10 Loudon Street, Kolkata, India
                [3 ]Department of Microbiology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, India
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Dr. Suman Saha, Ocular Microbiology Division, Priyamvada Birla Aravind Eye Hospital, 10, Loudon Street, Kolkata-700017, West Bengal, India. E-mail: sumansaha13@ 123456gmail.com
                Copyright: © Indian Journal of Ophthalmology

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 18 October 2010
                : 16 June 2011
                Brief Communications

                Ophthalmology & Optometry
                keratitis,rhodotorula sp,polymerase chain reaction
                Ophthalmology & Optometry
                keratitis, rhodotorula sp, polymerase chain reaction


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