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      Tim-3 is differently expressed in genetically susceptible C57BL/6 and resistant BALB/c mice during oral infection with Toxoplasma gondii

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          Tim-3 has opposing roles in innate and adaptive immunities. It not only dampens CD4+ and CD8+ T cells responses but also enhances the ability of macrophages to eliminate intracellular pathogens. After peroral infection with 100 cysts of Toxoplasma gondii genetically susceptible C57BL/6 mice develop an unchecked Th1 response associated with the development of small intestinal immunopathology. Here we report that upon infection with T. gondii, both susceptible C57BL/6 and resistant BALB/c mice exhibit increased frequencies of Tim-3+ cells in spleens and mesenteric lymph nodes. The number of Tim-3+ cells was significantly higher in C57BL/6 than in BALB/c mice. Tim-3 was expressed by macrophages, dendritic, natural killer, as well as CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Highest frequencies of Tim-3+ cells were observed at the peak of Th1 responses (day 7 post infection) concurrent with the development of ileal immunopathology. Infected Tim-3-deficient BALB/c mice did not develop ileal immunopathology nor did their parasite loads differ from those in wildtype BALB/c mice. Thus, although Tim-3 is markedly upregulated upon infection and differentially regulated in susceptible and resistant mice upon infection with T. gondii, the absence of Tim-3 is not sufficient to overcome the genetic resistance of BALB/c mice to the development of Th1-driven small intestinal immunopathology.

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          Most cited references19

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          Th1-specific cell surface protein Tim-3 regulates macrophage activation and severity of an autoimmune disease.

          Activation of naive CD4(+) T-helper cells results in the development of at least two distinct effector populations, Th1 and Th2 cells. Th1 cells produce cytokines (interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-2, tumour-necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and lymphotoxin) that are commonly associated with cell-mediated immune responses against intracellular pathogens, delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, and induction of organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Th2 cells produce cytokines (IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13) that are crucial for control of extracellular helminthic infections and promote atopic and allergic diseases. Although much is known about the functions of these two subsets of T-helper cells, there are few known surface molecules that distinguish between them. We report here the identification and characterization of a transmembrane protein, Tim-3, which contains an immunoglobulin and a mucin-like domain and is expressed on differentiated Th1 cells. In vivo administration of antibody to Tim-3 enhances the clinical and pathological severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a Th1-dependent autoimmune disease, and increases the number and activation level of macrophages. Tim-3 may have an important role in the induction of autoimmune diseases by regulating macrophage activation and/or function.
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            Promotion of tissue inflammation by the immune receptor Tim-3 expressed on innate immune cells.

            CD4+ T helper 1 (TH1) cells are important mediators of inflammation and are regulated by numerous pathways, including the negative immune receptor Tim-3. We found that Tim-3 is constitutively expressed on cells of the innate immune system in both mice and humans, and that it can synergize with Toll-like receptors. Moreover, an antibody agonist of Tim-3 acted as an adjuvant during induced immune responses, and Tim-3 ligation induced distinct signaling events in T cells and dendritic cells; the latter finding could explain the apparent divergent functions of Tim-3 in these cell types. Thus, by virtue of differential expression on innate versus adaptive immune cells, Tim-3 can either promote or terminate TH1 immunity and may be able to influence a range of inflammatory conditions.
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              Tim-3 inhibits T helper type 1-mediated auto- and alloimmune responses and promotes immunological tolerance.

              Although T helper (T(H)) cell-mediated immunity is required to effectively eliminate pathogens, unrestrained T(H) activity also contributes to tissue injury in many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. We report here that the T(H) type 1 (T(H)1)-specific Tim-3 (T cell immunoglobulin domain, mucin domain) protein functions to inhibit aggressive T(H)1-mediated auto- and alloimmune responses. Tim-3 pathway blockade accelerated diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice and prevented acquisition of transplantation tolerance induced by costimulation blockade. These effects were mediated, at least in part, by dampening of the antigen-specific immunosuppressive function of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cell populations. Our data indicate that the Tim-3 pathway provides an important mechanism to down-regulate T(H)1-dependent immune responses and to facilitate the development of immunological tolerance.

                Author and article information

                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó, co-published with Springer Science+Business Media B.V., Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V.
                1 September 2013
                : 3
                : 3
                : 211-221
                [ 1 ] Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Charité, University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany
                [ 2 ] Experimental Immunology, Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Charité, University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany
                [ 3 ] German Rheumatism Research Center (DRFZ), A Leibniz Institute, Berlin, Germany
                [ 4 ] Department of Gastroenterology, Infectology and Rheumatology / Research Center ImmunoSciences (RCIS), Charité, University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany
                [ 5 ] Institute for Immunology, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany
                [ 6 ] Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, CA, USA
                Author notes

                These authors contributed equally.

                : 11 July 2013
                : 18 July 2013
                Original Article

                Medicine,Immunology,Health & Social care,Microbiology & Virology,Infectious disease & Microbiology
                T cells,immune cell response,Tim-3,acute ileitis, Toxoplasma gondii ,Th1 type immunopathology,oral infection


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