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      High-performance hysteresis-free perovskite transistors through anion engineering

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          Abstract

          Despite the impressive development of metal halide perovskites in diverse optoelectronics, progress on high-performance transistors employing state-of-the-art perovskite channels has been limited due to ion migration and large organic spacer isolation. Herein, we report high-performance hysteresis-free p-channel perovskite thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on methylammonium tin iodide (MASnI 3) and rationalise the effects of halide (I/Br/Cl) anion engineering on film quality improvement and tin/iodine vacancy suppression, realising high hole mobilities of 20 cm 2 V −1 s −1, current on/off ratios exceeding 10 7, and threshold voltages of 0 V along with high operational stabilities and reproducibilities. We reveal ion migration has a negligible contribution to the hysteresis of Sn-based perovskite TFTs; instead, minority carrier trapping is the primary cause. Finally, we integrate the perovskite TFTs with commercialised n-channel indium gallium zinc oxide TFTs on a single chip to construct high-gain complementary inverters, facilitating the development of halide perovskite semiconductors for printable electronics and circuits.

          Abstract

          Progress on high-performance transistor employing perovskite channels has been limited to date. Here, Zhu et al. report hysteresis-free tin-based perovskite thin-film transistors with high hole mobility of 20 cm 2V –1S –1, which can be integrated with commercial metal oxide transistors on a single chip.

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          Organometal halide perovskites as visible-light sensitizers for photovoltaic cells.

          Two organolead halide perovskite nanocrystals, CH(3)NH(3)PbBr(3) and CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3), were found to efficiently sensitize TiO(2) for visible-light conversion in photoelectrochemical cells. When self-assembled on mesoporous TiO(2) films, the nanocrystalline perovskites exhibit strong band-gap absorptions as semiconductors. The CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3)-based photocell with spectral sensitivity of up to 800 nm yielded a solar energy conversion efficiency of 3.8%. The CH(3)NH(3)PbBr(3)-based cell showed a high photovoltage of 0.96 V with an external quantum conversion efficiency of 65%.
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            Nanocrystals of Cesium Lead Halide Perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, and I): Novel Optoelectronic Materials Showing Bright Emission with Wide Color Gamut

            Metal halides perovskites, such as hybrid organic–inorganic CH3NH3PbI3, are newcomer optoelectronic materials that have attracted enormous attention as solution-deposited absorbing layers in solar cells with power conversion efficiencies reaching 20%. Herein we demonstrate a new avenue for halide perovskites by designing highly luminescent perovskite-based colloidal quantum dot materials. We have synthesized monodisperse colloidal nanocubes (4–15 nm edge lengths) of fully inorganic cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, and I or mixed halide systems Cl/Br and Br/I) using inexpensive commercial precursors. Through compositional modulations and quantum size-effects, the bandgap energies and emission spectra are readily tunable over the entire visible spectral region of 410–700 nm. The photoluminescence of CsPbX3 nanocrystals is characterized by narrow emission line-widths of 12–42 nm, wide color gamut covering up to 140% of the NTSC color standard, high quantum yields of up to 90%, and radiative lifetimes in the range of 1–29 ns. The compelling combination of enhanced optical properties and chemical robustness makes CsPbX3 nanocrystals appealing for optoelectronic applications, particularly for blue and green spectral regions (410–530 nm), where typical metal chalcogenide-based quantum dots suffer from photodegradation.
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              Organic-inorganic hybrid materials as semiconducting channels in thin-film field-effect transistors

              Organic-inorganic hybrid materials promise both the superior carrier mobility of inorganic semiconductors and the processability of organic materials. A thin-film field-effect transistor having an organic-inorganic hybrid material as the semiconducting channel was demonstrated. Hybrids based on the perovskite structure crystallize from solution to form oriented molecular-scale composites of alternating organic and inorganic sheets. Spin-coated thin films of the semiconducting perovskite (C(6)H(5)C(2)H(4)NH(3))(2)SnI(4) form the conducting channel, with field-effect mobilities of 0.6 square centimeters per volt-second and current modulation greater than 10(4). Molecular engineering of the organic and inorganic components of the hybrids is expected to further improve device performance for low-cost thin-film transistors.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                sai.bai@liu.se
                yynoh@postech.ac.kr
                Journal
                Nat Commun
                Nat Commun
                Nature Communications
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2041-1723
                1 April 2022
                1 April 2022
                2022
                : 13
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.49100.3c, ISNI 0000 0001 0742 4007, Department of Chemical Engineering, , Pohang University of Science and Technology, ; 77 Cheongam-Ro, Nam-Gu, Pohang, 37673 Republic of Korea
                [2 ]GRID grid.49100.3c, ISNI 0000 0001 0742 4007, Department of Chemical Engineering and School of Interdisciplinary Bioscience and Bioengineering, , Pohang University of Science and Technology, ; 77 Cheongam-Ro, Nam-Gu, Pohang, 37673 Republic of Korea
                [3 ]GRID grid.19373.3f, ISNI 0000 0001 0193 3564, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology Key Lab of Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Information System, , Harbin Institute of Technology, ; Shenzhen, 518055 China
                [4 ]GRID grid.419666.a, ISNI 0000 0001 1945 5898, R&D Center, , Samsung Display Inc., ; Yongin, 17113 Republic of Korea
                [5 ]GRID grid.54549.39, ISNI 0000 0004 0369 4060, Institute of Fundamental and Frontier Sciences, , University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, ; Chengdu, 611731 China
                [6 ]GRID grid.5640.7, ISNI 0000 0001 2162 9922, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), , Linköping University, ; Linköping, SE-58183 Sweden
                Article
                29434
                10.1038/s41467-022-29434-x
                8975846
                35365628
                91d9a937-213c-446a-9714-67e1f934683c
                © The Author(s) 2022

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/501100003725, National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF);
                Award ID: 2020R1A4A1019455
                Award Recipient :
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                © The Author(s) 2022

                Uncategorized
                electronic devices,electrical and electronic engineering
                Uncategorized
                electronic devices, electrical and electronic engineering

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