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      Building better batteries

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      Nature

      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Most cited references 15

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          Nanostructured materials for advanced energy conversion and storage devices.

          New materials hold the key to fundamental advances in energy conversion and storage, both of which are vital in order to meet the challenge of global warming and the finite nature of fossil fuels. Nanomaterials in particular offer unique properties or combinations of properties as electrodes and electrolytes in a range of energy devices. This review describes some recent developments in the discovery of nanoelectrolytes and nanoelectrodes for lithium batteries, fuel cells and supercapacitors. The advantages and disadvantages of the nanoscale in materials design for such devices are highlighted.
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            Nano-sized transition-metal oxides as negative-electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

            Rechargeable solid-state batteries have long been considered an attractive power source for a wide variety of applications, and in particular, lithium-ion batteries are emerging as the technology of choice for portable electronics. One of the main challenges in the design of these batteries is to ensure that the electrodes maintain their integrity over many discharge-recharge cycles. Although promising electrode systems have recently been proposed, their lifespans are limited by Li-alloying agglomeration or the growth of passivation layers, which prevent the fully reversible insertion of Li ions into the negative electrodes. Here we report that electrodes made of nanoparticles of transition-metal oxides (MO, where M is Co, Ni, Cu or Fe) demonstrate electrochemical capacities of 700 mA h g(-1), with 100% capacity retention for up to 100 cycles and high recharging rates. The mechanism of Li reactivity differs from the classical Li insertion/deinsertion or Li-alloying processes, and involves the formation and decomposition of Li2O, accompanying the reduction and oxidation of metal nanoparticles (in the range 1-5 nanometres) respectively. We expect that the use of transition-metal nanoparticles to enhance surface electrochemical reactivity will lead to further improvements in the performance of lithium-ion batteries.
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              A Polymer Electrolyte-Based Rechargeable Lithium/Oxygen Battery

               K. M. Abraham (1996)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature
                Nature
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0028-0836
                1476-4687
                February 2008
                February 6 2008
                February 2008
                : 451
                : 7179
                : 652-657
                Article
                10.1038/451652a
                18256660
                © 2008

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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