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      Hemoadsorption with CytoSorb®

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      Intensive Care Medicine

      Springer Nature

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          Hemoadsorption by CytoSorb in septic patients: a case series

          Background Septic shock, defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection, is a highly lethal condition that causes substantial morbidity and mortality among critically ill patients. One of the hallmarks of sepsis is the excessive release of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators causing refractory hypotension, tissue damage, metabolic acidosis and ultimately multiple organ failure. In this context, cytokine reduction by hemoadsorption represents a new concept for blood purification, developed to attenuate the overwhelming systemic levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators released in the early phase of sepsis. Methods In the present case series, we evaluated the impact of a new hemoadsorption device (CytoSorb) used as adjunctive therapy, on hemodynamics and clinically relevant outcome parameters in 26 critically ill patients with septic shock and in need of renal replacement therapy. Results We found that treatment of these patients with septic shock was associated with hemodynamic stabilization and a reduction in blood lactate levels. Actual mortality in the overall patient population was lower than mortality predicted by acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II). These effects seem to be more pronounced in patients in whom therapy started within 24 h of sepsis diagnosis, whereas a delay in the start of therapy was associated with a poor response to therapy in terms of reduction of catecholamine demand and survival. Moreover, from our patient population, medical patients seemed to benefit more than post-surgical patients in terms of survival. Treatment using the CytoSorb device was safe and well-tolerated with no device-related adverse events during or after the treatment sessions. Conclusion Hemoadsorption using CytoSorb resulted in rapid hemodynamic stabilization and increased survival, particularly in patients in whom therapy was started early. Given the positive clinical experience of this case series, randomized controlled trials are urgently needed to define the potential benefits of this new treatment option.
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            The effect of a novel extracorporeal cytokine hemoadsorption device on IL-6 elimination in septic patients: A randomized controlled trial

            Objective We report on the effect of hemoadsorption therapy to reduce cytokines in septic patients with respiratory failure. Methods This was a randomized, controlled, open-label, multicenter trial. Mechanically ventilated patients with severe sepsis or septic shock and acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome were eligible for study inclusion. Patients were randomly assigned to either therapy with CytoSorb hemoperfusion for 6 hours per day for up to 7 consecutive days (treatment), or no hemoperfusion (control). Primary outcome was change in normalized IL-6-serum concentrations during study day 1 and 7. Results 97 of the 100 randomized patients were analyzed. We were not able to detect differences in systemic plasma IL-6 levels between the two groups (n = 75; p = 0.15). Significant IL-6 elimination, averaging between 5 and 18% per blood pass throughout the entire treatment period was recorded. In the unadjusted analysis, 60-day-mortality was significantly higher in the treatment group (44.7%) compared to the control group (26.0%; p = 0.039). The proportion of patients receiving renal replacement therapy at the time of enrollment was higher in the treatment group (31.9%) when compared to the control group (16.3%). After adjustment for patient morbidity and baseline imbalances, no association of hemoperfusion with mortality was found (p = 0.19). Conclusions In this patient population with predominantly septic shock and multiple organ failure, hemoadsorption removed IL-6 but this did not lead to lower plasma IL-6-levels. We did not detect statistically significant differences in the secondary outcomes multiple organ dysfunction score, ventilation time and time course of oxygenation.
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              Effects of hemoadsorption on cytokine removal and short-term survival in septic rats.

              A broad-spectrum immune-regulating therapy could be beneficial in the treatment of sepsis. Our previous studies have shown that a hemoadsorption device (CytoSorb) removes both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and improves survival in experimental endotoxemia. We sought to determine whether hemoadsorption can also be effective in the treatment of sepsis. Randomized controlled laboratory experiment. University laboratory. Rats were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and 20 hrs later were randomized to receive either hemoadsorption or sham treatment using an arterial-venous circuit. Hemoadsorption was accomplished using a cartridge containing Cytosorb beads. Blood was drawn for cytokine measurements and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was continuously monitored. Cytokines were measured via multiplex bead immunoassays. Survival time was observed for 9 hours after the intervention and assessed by Kaplan-Meier statistics. The overall survival in each group was compared using Fisher's exact test. Finally, we used a Cox proportional-hazards model to examine the effects of cytokine removal on survival time. Baseline plasma cytokine concentrations and MAP were similar between hemoadsorption and sham-treated groups. However, the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and IL-10 were significantly lower after hemoadsorption compared to the sham group. Six hours after treatment ended, IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations were still lower in hemoadsorption group. MAP was significantly better in hemoadsorption compared to sham-treated animals (p < .05). Finally, mean survival time was significantly longer (720 vs. 381 min, p < .05, Mann-Whitney test), and overall survival was significantly better (11/17 vs. 2/16, p < .01) with hemoadsorption compared to sham. Combined reduction in both IL-6 and IL-10 was associated with a significantly decreased risk of death (hazard ratio, .11, p = .005). Hemoadsorption reduced circulating cytokines, improved MAP, and resulted in better short-term survival in CLP-induced septic rats.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Intensive Care Medicine
                Intensive Care Med
                Springer Nature
                0342-4642
                1432-1238
                February 2019
                November 16 2018
                February 2019
                : 45
                : 2
                : 236-239
                Article
                10.1007/s00134-018-5464-6
                30446798
                © 2019

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