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      Cancer statistics in China, 2015.

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          Abstract

          With increasing incidence and mortality, cancer is the leading cause of death in China and is a major public health problem. Because of China's massive population (1.37 billion), previous national incidence and mortality estimates have been limited to small samples of the population using data from the 1990s or based on a specific year. With high-quality data from an additional number of population-based registries now available through the National Central Cancer Registry of China, the authors analyzed data from 72 local, population-based cancer registries (2009-2011), representing 6.5% of the population, to estimate the number of new cases and cancer deaths for 2015. Data from 22 registries were used for trend analyses (2000-2011). The results indicated that an estimated 4292,000 new cancer cases and 2814,000 cancer deaths would occur in China in 2015, with lung cancer being the most common incident cancer and the leading cause of cancer death. Stomach, esophageal, and liver cancers were also commonly diagnosed and were identified as leading causes of cancer death. Residents of rural areas had significantly higher age-standardized (Segi population) incidence and mortality rates for all cancers combined than urban residents (213.6 per 100,000 vs 191.5 per 100,000 for incidence; 149.0 per 100,000 vs 109.5 per 100,000 for mortality, respectively). For all cancers combined, the incidence rates were stable during 2000 through 2011 for males (+0.2% per year; P = .1), whereas they increased significantly (+2.2% per year; P < .05) among females. In contrast, the mortality rates since 2006 have decreased significantly for both males (-1.4% per year; P < .05) and females (-1.1% per year; P < .05). Many of the estimated cancer cases and deaths can be prevented through reducing the prevalence of risk factors, while increasing the effectiveness of clinical care delivery, particularly for those living in rural areas and in disadvantaged populations.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Epidemiological serosurvey of hepatitis B in China--declining HBV prevalence due to hepatitis B vaccination.

          To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), and hepatitis B core anti-body (anti-HBc) in a representative population in China 14 years after introduction of hepatitis B vaccination of infants. National serosurvey, with participants selected by multi-stage random sampling. Demographics and hepatitis B vaccination history collected by questionnaire and review of vaccination records, and serum tested for HBsAg, antibody to anti-HBc and anti-HBs by ELISA. The weighted prevalences of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc for Chinese population aged 1-59 years were 7.2%, 50.1%, 34.1%, respectively. HBsAg prevalence was greatly diminished among those age <15 years compared to that found in the 1992 national serosurvey, and among children age <5 years was only 1.0% (90% reduction). Reduced HBsAg prevalence was strongly associated with vaccination among all age groups. HBsAg risk in adults was associated with male sex, Western region, and certain ethnic groups and occupations while risk in children included birth at home or smaller hospitals, older age, and certain ethnic groups (Zhuang and other). China has already reached the national goal of reducing HBsAg prevalence to less than 1% among children under 5 years and has prevented an estimated 16-20 million HBV carriers through hepatitis B vaccination of infants. Immunization program should be further strengthened to reach those remaining at highest risk.
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            The International Epidemiology of Lung Cancer: geographical distribution and secular trends.

            This review presents the latest available international data for lung cancer incidence, mortality and survival, emphasizing the established causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer. In 2002, it was estimated that 1.35 million people throughout the world were diagnosed with lung cancer, and 1.18 million died of lung cancer-more than for any other type of cancer. There are some key differences in the epidemiology of lung cancer between more developed and less developed countries. In more developed countries, incidence and mortality rates are generally declining among males and are starting to plateau for females, reflecting previous trends in smoking prevalence. In contrast, there are some populations in less developed countries where increasing lung cancer rates are predicted to continue, due to endemic use of tobacco. A higher proportion of lung cancer cases are attributable to nonsmoking causes within less developed countries, particularly among women. Worldwide, the majority of lung cancer patients are diagnosed after the disease has progressed to a more advanced stage. Despite advances in chemotherapy, prognosis for lung cancer patients remains poor, with 5-year relative survival less than 14% among males and less than 18% among females in most countries. Given the increasing incidence of lung cancer in less developed countries and the current lack of effective treatment for advanced lung cancers, these results highlight the need for ongoing global tobacco reform to reduce the international burden of lung cancer.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CA Cancer J Clin
                CA: a cancer journal for clinicians
                1542-4863
                0007-9235
                : 66
                : 2
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Deputy Director, National Office for Cancer Prevention and Control, National Cancer Center, Beijing, China.
                [2 ] Associate Researcher, National Office for Cancer Prevention and Control, National Cancer Center, Beijing, China.
                [3 ] Senior Research Fellow, Cancer Council Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
                [4 ] Associate Professor, National Office for Cancer Prevention and Control, National Cancer Center, Beijing, China.
                [5 ] Head, Section of Cancer Surveillance, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.
                [6 ] Vice President, Surveillance and Health Services Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA.
                [7 ] Research Fellow, Cancer Council New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
                [8 ] Adjunct Lecturer, Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
                [9 ] Director, National Cancer Center, Beijing, China.
                Article
                10.3322/caac.21338
                26808342
                © 2016 American Cancer Society.

                China, cancer, health disparities, incidence, mortality, survival, trends

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