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      Rare Functioning Pancreatic Endocrine Tumors

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          Most cited references 43

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          Streptozocin-doxorubicin, streptozocin-fluorouracil or chlorozotocin in the treatment of advanced islet-cell carcinoma.

          The combination of streptozocin and fluorouracil has become the standard therapy for advanced islet-cell carcinoma. However, doxorubicin has also been shown to be active against this type of tumor, as has chlorozotocin, a drug that is structurally similar to streptozocin but less frequently causes vomiting. In this multicenter trial, we randomly assigned 105 patients with advanced islet-cell carcinoma to receive one of three treatment regimens: streptozocin plus fluorouracil, streptozocin plus doxorubicin, or chlorozotocin alone. The 31 patients in whom the disease did not respond to treatment were crossed over to chlorozotocin alone or to one of the combination regimens. Streptozocin plus doxorubicin was superior to streptozocin plus fluorouracil in terms of the rate of tumor regression, measured objectively (69 percent vs. 45 percent, P = 0.05), and the length of time to tumor progression (median, 20 vs. 6.9 months; P = 0.001). Streptozocin plus doxorubicin also had a significant advantage in terms of survival (median, 2.2 vs. 1.4 years; P = 0.004) that was accentuated when we considered long-term survival (greater than 2 years). Chlorozotocin alone produced a 30 percent regression rate, with the length of time to tumor progression and the survival time equivalent to those observed with streptozocin plus fluorouracil. Crossover therapy after the failure of either chlorozotocin alone or one of the combination regimens produced an overall response rate of only 17 percent, and the responses were transient. Toxic reactions to all regimens included vomiting, which was least severe with chlorozotocin; hematologic depression; and, with long-term therapy, renal insufficiency. The combination of streptozocin and doxorubicin is superior to the current standard regimen of streptozocin plus fluorouracil in the treatment of advanced islet-cell carcinoma. Chlorozotocin alone is similar in efficacy to streptozocin plus fluorouracil, but it produces fewer gastrointestinal side effects than the regimens containing streptozocin. It therefore merits study as a constituent of combination drug regimens.
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            Fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and streptozocin in the treatment of patients with locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic endocrine carcinomas.

            The role of systemic chemotherapy in the management of pancreatic endocrine carcinoma (islet cell carcinoma; PEC) is an area of considerable controversy. Response rates ranging from 6% to 69% have been reported for streptozocin-based chemotherapy. We retrospectively studied 84 patients with locally advanced or metastatic PEC who had been treated with fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and streptozocin (FAS) to determine the objective response rate, duration of progression-free survival (PFS), and duration of overall survival (OS). Eligible patients had histologic or cytologic confirmation of their tumor and measurable disease on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans. Response to treatment was evaluated in this study using the new international criteria proposed by the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors Committee. Sixty-one of the patients were male and 23 were female, with a median age of 54 years (range, 24 to 78 years). The response rate (RR) to FAS was 39%, with a median response duration of 9.3 months. The 2-year PFS rate was 41%, and the 2-year OS rate was 74%. The extent of liver metastatic disease correlated with a worse PFS (P = .01 by log-rank test) and a worse OS (P < .0001 by log-rank test). Analyses showed that metastatic replacement of more than 75% of the liver and prior chemotherapy were independently associated with inferior PFS. Patients with locally advanced or metastatic PEC who are treated with FAS may have a reasonable RR, and responders may experience longer PFS and OS. The volume of metastases in the liver is the most important predictor of outcome.
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              Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Neuroendocrine Gastrointestinal Tumours

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEN
                Neuroendocrinology
                10.1159/issn.0028-3835
                Neuroendocrinology
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-8267-4
                978-3-318-01452-5
                0028-3835
                1423-0194
                2006
                February 2007
                23 February 2007
                : 84
                : 3
                : 189-195
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Gastroenterology, Beaujon Hospital, Clichy, France; bDepartment of Oncology, Institut Català d’Oncologia, Barcelona, Spain; cDepartment of Surgery, Verona University, Verona, Italy; dDepartment of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Genimatas Hospital, Athens, Greece; eDepartment of Gastroenterology, Beaujon Hospital, Clichy, France; fDepartment of Endocrinology, Erasmus MC University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; gDepartment of Internal Medicine, Martin University, Martin, Slovakia; hDepartment of Propaedeutic Internal Medicine, Laiko Hospital, Athens, Greece; iDepartment of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus MC University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; jDepartment of Gastroenterology, Beaujon Hospital, Clichy, France; kDepartment of Gastroenterology, Royal Free Hospital, London, UK; lDepartment of Cell Biology, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Md., USA; mDepartment of Endocrinology, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden
                Article
                98011 Neuroendocrinology 2006;84:189–195
                10.1159/000098011
                17312379
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                References: 65, Pages: 7
                Categories
                ENETS Guidelines

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