The influence of the adrenal gland on the expression of chromogranin A in the anterior pituitary was studied in the rat. Adrenalectomy caused a progressive and pronounced (20% of control levels at day 10 after adrenalectomy) decrease of Chromogranin A mRNA levels in anterior pituitary. Daily injection of dexamethasone (15 µg/animal, s.c.) fully reversed the postadrenalectomy decrement in chromogranin A mRNA levels. Chromogranin A protein content, however, was unchanged 10 days after adrenalectomy. In contrast, pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA levels were significantly elevated after adrenalectomy and restored to normal by dexamethasone, with a time course similar to the changes in chromogranin A mRNA levels. These data demonstrate that the adrenal gland permissively regulates chromogranin A expression in the anterior pituitary, at a pretranslational locus, and that this regulation is probably mediated by glucocorticoids.