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      Prevalence and distribution of Eimeria species in broiler chicken farms of different capacities

      1 , * , 1 , 1

      Parasite

      EDP Sciences

      Eimeria, Prevalence, Chicken, PCR, Romania

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          Abstract

          We conducted a survey in broiler farms from Romania to establish prevalence and distribution of Eimeria species using single PCR assay. We found Eimeria spp. in 21 (91%) out of 23 flocks, and in 11 (92%) out of 12 farms. Four species of Eimeria were identified: E. acervulina (21/23; 91%), E. tenella (14/23; 61%), E. maxima (5/23; 22%) and E. praecox (3/23; 13%). Infection with a single species ( E. acervulina) was detected in 6 (26%) infected flocks originated from large farms. Mixed infections were found in 15 (65%) flocks and the most prevalent combination was E. acervulina +  E. tenella (8/23; 35%). Four flocks (17%) harboured mixed infection with E. acervulina + E. tenella +  E. maxima. E. acervulina was significantly more prevalent in flocks that received ionophores as anticoccidial feed additives.

          Translated abstract

          Nous avons mené une enquête dans les élevages de poulets de chair en Roumanie pour établir la prévalence et la répartition des espèces d’ Eimeria en utilisant les tests PCR. Nous avons trouvé Eimeria spp. chez 21 (91 %) des 23 bandes de poules, et dans 11 (92 %) des 12 fermes. Quatre espèces d’ Eimeria ont été identifiées : E. acervulina (21/23 ; 91 %), E. tenella (14/23 ; 61 %), E. maxima (5/23 ; 22 %) et E. praecox (3/23 ; 13 %). L’infection par une seule espèce ( E. acervulina) a été détectée dans 6 (26 %) des bandes infectées provenant de grandes exploitations. Des infections mixtes ont été trouvées dans 15 (65 %) des bandes et la combinaison la plus fréquente était E. acervulina +  E. tenella (8/23 ; 35 %). Quatre bandes (17 %) hébergeaient une infection mixte à E. acervulina +  E. tenella +  E. maxima. E. acervulina était significativement plus fréquente chez les bandes recevant des ionophores comme suppléments alimentaires anticoccidiens.

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          Most cited references 41

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          Poultry coccidiosis: recent advancements in control measures and vaccine development.

          Coccidiosis is recognized as the major parasitic disease of poultry and is caused by the apicomplexan protozoan Eimeria. Coccidiosis seriously impairs the growth and feed utilization of infected animals resulting in loss of productivity. Conventional disease control strategies rely heavily on chemoprophylaxis and, to a certain extent, live vaccines. Combined, these factors inflict tremendous economic losses to the world poultry industry in excess of USD 3 billion annually. Increasing regulations and bans on the use of anticoccidial drugs coupled with the associated costs in developing new drugs and live vaccines increases the need for the development of novel approaches and alternative control strategies for coccidiosis. This paper aims to review the current progress in understanding the host immune response to Eimeria and discuss current and potential strategies being developed for coccidiosis control in poultry.
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            Biochemical, genetic and applied aspects of drug resistance in Eimeria parasites of the fowl.

             H Chapman (1997)
            Anticoccidial drugs are widely used for the control of coccidiosis in the fowl which has inevitably led to the development of drug resistance. Resistance has developed to all of the compounds that have been introduced and if chemotherapy is to remain the principal method of control of coccidiosis, it will be important to continue the search for new anticoccidial agents. Knowledge of biochemical pathways present in the Eimeria parasite and how they differ from those of the host might help identify novel targets for inhibition. Studies of the mode of action of drugs are required if the biochemical mechanisms of resistance are to be understood. Information on the genetic origins of resistance, the stability of resistance and the factors involved in the spread of resistance throughout parasite populations is required. Since there are no methods at present to prevent resistance, more attention should be given to developing strategies for preserving the efficacy of anticoccidial drugs.
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              Quantification of the crowding effect during infections with the seven Eimeria species of the domesticated fowl: its importance for experimental designs and the production of oocyst stocks.

               R.B. Williams (2001)
              The 'crowding effect' in avian coccidia, following administration of graded numbers of sporulated oocysts to naïve hosts, is recognisable by two characteristics. First, increasing doses of oocysts give rise to progressively higher oocyst yields, until a level of infection is reached (the 'maximally producing dose') above which further dose increases result in progressive decreases in oocyst yields. Second, the number of oocysts produced per oocyst administered (the 'reproductive potential') tends to decrease as the oocyst dose is increased. The dose that gives the maximal reproductive potential is the 'crowding threshold' and doses exceeding this are 'crowded doses'. Graded doses of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria brunetti, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria mitis, Eimeria necatrix, Eimeria praecox or Eimeria tenella were given to chickens of the same breed, sex and age, reared on the same diet, under identical management. The two characteristics of the crowding effect were demonstrated graphically and, by interpolation, the estimated crowding thresholds were 903, < or =16, 39, < or =14, < or =16, < or =16 or 72 sporulated oocysts, respectively, for the seven Eimeria species enumerated above. This is apparently the first report of definitive experiments to quantify a crowding effect in E. brunetti, E. maxima, E. mitis, E. necatrix and E. praecox. Maximum experimental reproductive potentials were considerably lower than the theoretical reproductive potentials for all seven species. The interaction between availability of host intestinal cells and immunity contributing to the crowding effect is discussed. Standard curves obtained under specified conditions should be used to estimate appropriate infective doses for experimental designs or in vivo production of oocyst stocks. For experiments on effects of chemotherapy or immunisation on oocyst production, an infective dose lower than the crowding threshold should be used. For efficient production of laboratory or factory oocyst stocks, the maximally producing dose (which is greater than the crowding threshold), should be used.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2013
                06 December 2013
                : 20
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2013/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine Cluj Napoca 3-5 Calea Mănăştur 400372 Cluj-Napoca Romania
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: titilincua@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                parasite130042 10.1051/parasite/2013052
                10.1051/parasite/2013052
                3852269
                24309007
                © A. Györke et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2013

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 57, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Research Article

                pcr, chicken, romania, eimeria, prevalence

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