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      Maori and Pacific Islander overrepresentation in the Australian criminal justice system—what are the determinants?

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      Journal of Offender Rehabilitation

      Informa UK Limited

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          Most cited references 14

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          Lead Article - Immigration, Acculturation, and Adaptation

           John W. Berry (1997)
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            A comparative study of violence risk assessment tools: a systematic review and metaregression analysis of 68 studies involving 25,980 participants.

            There are a large number of structured instruments that assist in the assessment of antisocial, violent and sexual risk, and their use appears to be increasing in mental health and criminal justice settings. However, little is known about which commonly used instruments produce the highest rates of predictive validity, and whether overall rates of predictive validity differ by gender, ethnicity, outcome, and other study characteristics. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of nine commonly used risk assessment instruments following PRISMA guidelines. We collected data from 68 studies based on 25,980 participants in 88 independent samples. For 54 of the samples, new tabular data was provided directly by authors. We used four outcome statistics to assess rates of predictive validity, and analyzed sources of heterogeneity using subgroup analysis and metaregression. A tool designed to detect violence risk in juveniles, the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY), produced the highest rates of predictive validity, while an instrument used to identify adults at risk for general offending, the Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R), and a personality scale commonly used for the purposes of risk assessment, the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), produced the lowest. Instruments produced higher rates of predictive validity in older and in predominantly White samples. Risk assessment procedures and guidelines by mental health services and criminal justice systems may need review in light of these findings. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Cultural safety in nursing: the New Zealand experience.

               E Papps,  I Ramsden (1996)
              The concept of cultural safety arose from the colonial context of New Zealand society. In response to the poor health status of Maori, the indigenous people of New Zealand, and their insistence that service delivery change profoundly, nursing has begun a process of self examination and change in nursing education, prompted by Maori nurses. Nursing and midwifery organizations moved to support this initiative as something which spoke truly of nursing and New Zealand society. Cultural safety became a requirement for nursing and midwifery courses in 1992. But its introduction into nursing education has been controversial. It became highly publicized in the national media, and the role and function of the Nursing Council of New Zealand was questioned. This paper discusses the New Zealand experience of introducing cultural safety into nursing education.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Offender Rehabilitation
                Journal of Offender Rehabilitation
                Informa UK Limited
                1050-9674
                1540-8558
                December 21 2015
                February 17 2016
                December 21 2015
                February 17 2016
                : 55
                : 2
                : 113-128
                Article
                10.1080/10509674.2015.1124959
                © 2016

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