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      Follicular and serum levels of vitamin D in women with unexplained infertility and their relationship with in vitro fertilization outcome: an observational pilot study


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          Follicular and serum vitamin D are considered potential markers of the oocyte and embryos’ quality and predictors of in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes.


          This retrospective cross-sectional study correlated vitamin D in sera and follicular fluid of women with unexplained infertility mutually and with IVF outcomes. ELISA was used for measuring vitamin D.


          The results show positive correlation only between follicular and serum levels of vitamin D (Rho = 0.615, p = 0.025), and between follicular levels of vitamin D and the percentage of embryo fragmentation (Rho = 0.544; p = 0.036).


          The results suggest that serum and follicular fluid vitamin D measurements could be complementary tools to the routine assessment of embryos.

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          Most cited references17

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          Relevance of vitamin D in reproduction.

          The steroid hormone vitamin D is historically recognized for its relevance to bone health and calcium homeostasis. Recent years have witnessed a shift in focus to non-skeletal benefits of vitamin D; in this latter context, an accruing body of literature attests to a relevance of vitamin D to reproductive physiology. This article reviews the existing data about the diverse and previously underappreciated roles for vitamin D in reproductive health. A large body of available literature suggests that vitamin D deficiency may be detrimental to reproductive biology. However, given that our appreciation of vitamin D's role in reproductive physiology is almost entirely shaped by 'associative' studies and that data based on prospective interventional trials are limited, these concepts remain predominantly conjectural. Exact mechanisms whereby vitamin D may participate in the regulation of reproductive physiology remain far from clear. This review underscores a need for appropriately designed intervention trials to address the existing knowledge gaps and to delineate the specific roles of vitamin D signaling in reproductive biology.
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            Value of follicular fluid vitamin D in predicting the pregnancy rate in an IVF program.

            This study investigated whether there is a correlation between levels of 25OH-D in the follicular fluid and the serum of infertile women and the results of IVF and rates of pregnancy. The association between the levels of 25OH-D in the follicular fluid and the vitamin D repletion status was also assessed. Two hundred and twenty-one infertile women participated in an IVF cycle from 2010 to 2011 in a prospective observational study. Serum and follicular fluid were collected for vitamin D analysis. Deficient, insufficient, and sufficient levels of vitamin D were defined as 10, 10-29, and 30-100 ng/ml, respectively. IVF cycle parameters and clinical pregnancy rates were also compared with the vitamin D level. The levels of vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency, and sufficiency were 22.6, 70.1, and 7.2%, respectively. The fertilization rates associated with these three levels of vitamin D were 43.17, 53.37, and 58.77%, respectively, (P = 0.054), and the implantation rates were 17.33, 15.26, and 18.75%, respectively, (P = 0.579). No significant correlation was seen between the pregnancy rate and the serum vitamin D level (P = 0.094) or the follicular vitamin D level (P = 0.170). The serum and follicular fluid vitamin D levels showed a significant correlation (P = 0.000). Although vitamin D is an important hormone in the human body, no correlation was found between the serum and follicular vitamin D level and the pregnancy rate in the IVF cycle.
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              Vitamin D in human reproduction: the more, the better? An evidence-based critical appraisal.

              Vitamin D is a fat-soluble secosteroid hormone that regulates calcium, magnesium, and phosphate homeostasis and plays a pivotal role as antiproliferative and immunomodulatory mediator. Considering the different sources of synthesis and dietary intake as well as the pleiotropic actions in extremely diverse (micro)environments of the body, the supplementation of this Vitamin should be carefully evaluated taking into account the several pathways that it regulates. In the current brief review, we aimed to summarize the available evidence about the topic, in order to suggest the best evidence-based supplementation strategy for human reproduction, avoiding the unuseful (and sometimes hazardous) empiric supplementation.

                Author and article information

                Arch Med Sci
                Arch Med Sci
                Archives of Medical Science : AMS
                Termedia Publishing House
                17 August 2021
                : 17
                : 5
                : 1418-1422
                [1 ]Clinic for Gynaecology and Obstetrics, “Narodni front”, Belgrade, Serbia
                [2 ]Institute of Medical Statistics and Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
                [3 ]Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
                [4 ]Department of Radiobiology and Molecular Genetics, VINČA Institute of Nuclear Sciences – National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Milan D. Perovic MD, PhD, Assoc. Prof. Clinic for Gynaecology and Obstetrics, “Narodni front”, School of Medicine University of Belgrade, Kraljice Natalije 62, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia. Phone: +381 64 4184953, Fax: +381 11 3283408. E-mail: perovicmilan@ 123456hotmail.com
                Copyright: © 2021 Termedia & Banach

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) License, allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format and to remix, transform, and build upon the material, provided the original work is properly cited and states its license.

                : 02 April 2021
                : 10 August 2021
                Research Letter

                vitamin d,follicular fluid,art outcome
                vitamin d, follicular fluid, art outcome


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