The location of the international 10-20 system electrode positions and 14 fiducial landmarks are described in cartesian coordinates (+/- 1.4 mm average accuracy). Six replications were obtained on 3 separate days from 4 normal subjects, who were compared to each other with a best-fit sphere algorithm. Test-retest reliability depended on the electrode position: the parasagittal electrodes were associated with greater measurement errors (maximum 7 mm) than midline locations. Location variability due to head shape was greatest in the temporal region, averaging 5 mm from the mean. For each subject's electrode locations a best-fitting sphere was determined (79-87 mm radius, 6% average error). A surface-fitting algorithm was used to transfer the electrode locations and best-fitting sphere to MR images of the brain and scalp. The center of the best-fitting sphere coincided with the floor of the third ventricle 5 mm anterior to the posterior commissure. The melding of EEG electrode location information with brain anatomy provides an empirical basis for associating hypothetical equivalent dipole locations with their anatomical substrates.