Measurements and different analyses of dental casts are essential for precise diagnosis of an orthodontic case. At present, virtual computerized models, such as OrthoCAD, are available for clinicians, supplemented by dedicated software for performing needed measurements on them. The purpose of this study was to test the accuracy of measuring casts with the aid of calipers or OrthoCAD and compare these two techniques. Twenty setups using artificial teeth corresponding to various malocclusions were created. Impressions were taken of them, providing 20 plaster and 20 virtual orthodontic models. Measurements of mesiodistal tooth dimension as well as intercanine and intermolar width were made on both. Additionally, values of tooth size were calculated from the isolated artificial teeth removed from the setups and of arch width from the existing setups. The resulting values were compared by the use of nonparametric statistics, and methods' errors were also calculated. Results showed the methods being highly valid and reproducible for both tooth size and arch width. For the tested clinically applicable methods, measurement with digital calipers on plaster models showed the highest accuracy and reproducibility, closely followed by OrthoCAD. Digital calipers seem to be a more suitable instrument for scientific work. However, OrthoCAD's accuracy is clinically acceptable, and most likely, considering its present advantages and future possibilities, the examined or an equivalent 3D virtual models' procedure would become the standard for orthodontic clinical use.