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      Cytogenetics of the Anopheles gambiae complex in Sudan, with special reference to An. arabiensis: relationships with East and West African populations.

      Medical and Veterinary Entomology

      Africa, Eastern, Africa, Western, Animals, Anopheles, genetics, Behavior, Animal, Chromosome Inversion, Ecology, Polymorphism, Genetic, Sudan

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          Abstract

          The species composition of malaria vector mosquitoes belonging to the Anopheles gambiae complex (Diptera: Culicidae) from >40 localities in Sudan, representing most ecological situations, was determined by analysis of ovarian polytene chromosomes. Of 2162 females, 93% were identified as An. arabiensis Patton and 7% were An. gambiae Giles sensu stricto. No hybrids were found between the two species. Anopheles arabiensis occurred in all but two sites, whereas An. gambiae s.s. was effectively limited to the southernmost, more humid localities. For chromosomal paracentric inversions, the degree of polymorphism was low in An. gambiae s.s. (inversions 2La, 2Rb and 2Rd), higher in An. arabiensis (inversions Xe, 2Ra, b, bc, d1, s; 3Ra, d). Anopheles gambiae samples from Sudan were all apparently panmictic, i.e. they did not show restricted gene flow such as observed among West African populations (interpreted as incipient speciation). Chromosomal inversion patterns of An. gambiae in southern Sudan showed characteristics of intergrading Savanna/Forest populations similar to those observed in comparable eco-climatic situations of West Africa. Anopheles arabiensis was polymorphic for inversion systems recorded in West Africa (2Ra, 2Rb, 2Rdl, 3Ra) and for a novel 2Rs polymorphism, overlapping with inversion systems 2Rb and 2Rd1. Samples carrying the 2Rs inversion were mostly from Khashm-el-Girba area in central-eastern Sudan. In the great majority of the samples all polymorphic inversions were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Sudan populations of An. arabiensis should therefore be considered as generally panmictic. Anopheles arabiensis shows more inversion polymorphism in west than in east African populations. Sudan populations have more evident similarities with those from westwards than those from eastwards of the Great Rift Valley. The possible influence of the Rift on evolution of An. arabiensis is discussed.

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          Most cited references 24

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          BIOSYS-1: a FORTRAN program for the comprehensive analysis of electrophoretic data in population genetics and systematics

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            Chromosomal inversion intergradation and incipient speciation inAnopheles gambiae

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              Different response to Plasmodium falciparum malaria in west African sympatric ethnic groups.

              The comparison of malaria indicators among populations that have different genetic backgrounds and are uniformly exposed to the same parasite strains is one approach to the study of human heterogeneties in the response to the infection. We report the results of comparative surveys on three sympatric West African ethnic groups, Fulani, Mossi, and Rimaibé, living in the same conditions of hyperendemic transmission in a Sudan savanna area northeast of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. The Mossi and Rimaibé are Sudanese negroid populations with a long tradition of sedentary farming, while the Fulani are nomadic pastoralists, partly settled and characterized by non-negroid features of possible caucasoid origin. Parasitological, clinical, and immunological investigations showed consistent interethnic differences in Plasmodium falciparum infection rates, malaria morbidity, and prevalence and levels of antibodies to various P. falciparum antigens. The data point to a remarkably similar response to malaria in the Mossi and Rimaibé, while the Fulani are clearly less parasitized, less affected by the disease, and more responsive to all antigens tested. No difference in the use of malaria protective measures was demonstrated that could account for these findings, and sociocultural or environmental factors do not seem to be involved. Known genetic factors of resistance to malaria did not show higher frequencies in the Fulani. The differences in the immune response were not explained by the entomological observations, which indicated substantially uniform exposure to infective bites. The available data support the existence of unknown genetic factors, possibly related to humoral immune responses, determining interethnic differences in the susceptibility to malaria.
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                10872859

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