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      Disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae

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          Abstract

          A molecular systematic study of Scrophulariaceae sensu lato using DNA sequences of three plastid genes (rbcL, ndhF, and rps2) revealed at least five distinct monophyletic groups. Thirty-nine genera representing 24 tribes of the Scrophulariaceae s.l. (sensu lato) were analyzed along with representatives of 15 other families of Lamiales. The Scrophulariaceae s.s. (sensu stricto) include part or all of tribes Aptosimeae, Hemimerideae, Leucophylleae, Manuleae, Selagineae, and Verbasceae (= Scrophularieae) and the conventional families Buddlejaceae and Myoporaceae. Veronicaceae includes all or part of tribes Angelonieae, Antirrhineae, Cheloneae, Digitaleae, and Gratioleae and the conventional families Callitrichaceae, Globulariaceae, Hippuridaceae, and Plantaginaceae. The Orobanchaceae include tribes Buchnereae, Rhinantheae, and the conventional Orobanchaceae. All sampled members of Orobanchaceae are parasitic, except Lindenbergia, which is sister to the rest of the family. Family Calceolariaceae Olmstead is newly erected herein to recognize the phylogenetic distinctiveness of tribe Calceolarieae. The Calceolariaceae are close to the base of the Lamiales. The Stilbaceae are expanded by the inclusion of Halleria. Mimulus does not belong in any of these five groups.

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          Evaluation of the maximum likelihood estimate of the evolutionary tree topologies from DNA sequence data, and the branching order in hominoidea.

          A maximum likelihood method for inferring evolutionary trees from DNA sequence data was developed by Felsenstein (1981). In evaluating the extent to which the maximum likelihood tree is a significantly better representation of the true tree, it is important to estimate the variance of the difference between log likelihood of different tree topologies. Bootstrap resampling can be used for this purpose (Hasegawa et al. 1988; Hasegawa and Kishino 1989), but it imposes a great computation burden. To overcome this difficulty, we developed a new method for estimating the variance by expressing it explicitly. The method was applied to DNA sequence data from primates in order to evaluate the maximum likelihood branching order among Hominoidea. It was shown that, although the orangutan is convincingly placed as an outgroup of a human and African apes clade, the branching order among human, chimpanzee, and gorilla cannot be determined confidently from the DNA sequence data presently available when the evolutionary rate constancy is not assumed.
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            TESTING SIGNIFICANCE OF INCONGRUENCE

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              Phylogenetics of Seed Plants: An Analysis of Nucleotide Sequences from the Plastid Gene rbcL

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                American Journal of Botany
                Am. J. Bot.
                JSTOR
                00029122
                February 2001
                February 2001
                February 01 2001
                : 88
                : 2
                : 348-361
                Article
                10.2307/2657024
                11222255
                9233c896-602d-41e6-a44d-0890d68f9a33
                © 2001

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

                http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/termsAndConditions#vor

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