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      Approaches to enhance social connection in older adults: an integrative review of literature

      , ,
      Aging and Health Research
      Elsevier BV

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          Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015: elaboration and explanation

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            Loneliness and social isolation as risk factors for mortality: a meta-analytic review.

            Actual and perceived social isolation are both associated with increased risk for early mortality. In this meta-analytic review, our objective is to establish the overall and relative magnitude of social isolation and loneliness and to examine possible moderators. We conducted a literature search of studies (January 1980 to February 2014) using MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Social Work Abstracts, and Google Scholar. The included studies provided quantitative data on mortality as affected by loneliness, social isolation, or living alone. Across studies in which several possible confounds were statistically controlled for, the weighted average effect sizes were as follows: social isolation odds ratio (OR) = 1.29, loneliness OR = 1.26, and living alone OR = 1.32, corresponding to an average of 29%, 26%, and 32% increased likelihood of mortality, respectively. We found no differences between measures of objective and subjective social isolation. Results remain consistent across gender, length of follow-up, and world region, but initial health status has an influence on the findings. Results also differ across participant age, with social deficits being more predictive of death in samples with an average age younger than 65 years. Overall, the influence of both objective and subjective social isolation on risk for mortality is comparable with well-established risk factors for mortality.
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              A theory of human motivation.

              A. MASLOW (1943)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Aging and Health Research
                Aging and Health Research
                Elsevier BV
                26670321
                September 2021
                September 2021
                : 1
                : 3
                : 100029
                Article
                10.1016/j.ahr.2021.100029
                924ef3e4-bb25-4b67-abae-ead5ad7574ec
                © 2021

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/


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