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      Stratification of cardiovascular risk in patients with atrial fibrillation and obstructive sleep apnea—validity of the 2MACE score

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          Abstract

          Background

          Risk stratification in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is critically important because this group is at high risk of mortality and morbidity. One of the comorbidities potentially affecting thromboembolic and total cardiovascular risk is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aim of this study was to determine whether or not patients with atrial fibrillation and concomitant obstructive sleep apnea have a higher predicted cardiovascular risk than those without sleep-disordered breathing.

          Methods

          The study was designed to be a cross-sectional observational study. Consecutive patients with primary diagnosis of AF who qualified for first-ever catheter ablation between 2011 and 2013 were enrolled. All patients had an overnight polysomnography performed for the diagnosis of OSA and calculation of a 2MACE score—a cardiovascular risk assessment score for AF.

          Results

          We studied 211 AF patients (mean age 57.1 ± 10.2 years, 62.6% males). OSA with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥15/h was found in 48 patients (22.7%). Cardiovascular disease and risk factors were as follows: 8 (3.8%) patients had congestive heart failure, 27 (12.8%) diabetes, 16 (7.6%) history of stroke or thromboembolic disease, 194 (91.9%) arterial hypertension, 24 (11.4%) vascular disease, and 31 (14.7%) were current smokers. A significantly higher percentage of patients with OSA was at high risk of cardiovascular disease (29.2 vs. 8.1%; p < 0.0001). The trend remained significant in different categories of obstructive sleep apnea when categorized by AHI into non-OSA, and mild, moderate, and severe OSA. Similarly, the mean 2MACE score was statistically significantly higher in OSA than non-OSA patients (2.1 ± 1.1 vs. 1.4 ± 1.0; p < 0.0001).

          Conclusion

          OSA prevalence is increased in AF patients and is associated with an increase 2MACE score—an indicator of major cardiovascular events. There is a linear relationship between severity of OSA and increasing 2MACE scores, indicating increasing cardiovascular risk related to OSA severity.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Estimation of the clinically diagnosed proportion of sleep apnea syndrome in middle-aged men and women.

          The proportion of sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) in the general adult population that goes undiagnosed was estimated from a sample of 4,925 employed adults. Questionnaire data on doctor-diagnosed sleep apnea were followed up to ascertain the prevalence of diagnosed sleep apnea. In-laboratory polysomnography on a subset of 1,090 participants was used to estimate screen-detected sleep apnea. In this population, without obvious barriers to health care for sleep disorders, we estimate that 93% of women and 82% of men with moderate to severe SAS have not been clinically diagnosed. These findings provide a baseline for assessing health care resource needs for sleep apnea.
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            The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among middle-aged adults.

            Limited data have suggested that sleep-disordered breathing, a condition of repeated episodes of apnea and hypopnea during sleep, is prevalent among adults. Data from the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of the natural history of cardiopulmonary disorders of sleep, were used to estimate the prevalence of undiagnosed sleep-disordered breathing among adults and address its importance to the public health. A random sample of 602 employed men and women 30 to 60 years old were studied by overnight polysomnography to determine the frequency of episodes of apnea and hypopnea per hour of sleep (the apnea-hypopnea score). We measured the age- and sex-specific prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in this group using three cutoff points for the apnea-hypopnea score (> or = 5, > or = 10, and > or = 15); we used logistic regression to investigate risk factors. The estimated prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing, defined as an apnea-hypopnea score of 5 or higher, was 9 percent for women and 24 percent for men. We estimated that 2 percent of women and 4 percent of men in the middle-aged work force meet the minimal diagnostic criteria for the sleep apnea syndrome (an apnea-hypopnea score of 5 or higher and daytime hypersomnolence). Male sex and obesity were strongly associated with the presence of sleep-disordered breathing. Habitual snorers, both men and women, tended to have a higher prevalence of apnea-hypopnea scores of 15 or higher. The prevalence of undiagnosed sleep-disordered breathing is high among men and is much higher than previously suspected among women. Undiagnosed sleep-disordered breathing is associated with daytime hypersomnolence.
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              Obstructive sleep apnea and the recurrence of atrial fibrillation.

              We tested the hypothesis that patients with untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) would be at increased risk for recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) after cardioversion. We prospectively obtained data on history, echocardiogram, ECG, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, NYHA functional class, ejection fraction, left atrial appendage velocity, and medications in patients with AF/atrial flutter referred for DC cardioversion. Forty-three individuals were identified as having OSA on the basis of a previous sleep study. Data regarding the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and recurrence of AF were obtained for 39 of these patients. Follow-up data were also obtained in 79 randomly selected postcardioversion patients (controls) who did not have any previous sleep study. Twenty-seven of the 39 OSA patients either were not receiving any CPAP therapy (n=25) or were using CPAP inappropriately (n=2). Recurrence of AF at 12 months in these 27 patients was 82%, higher than the 42% recurrence in the treated OSA group (n=12, P=0.013) and the 53% recurrence (n=79, P=0.009) in the 79 control patients. Of the 25 OSA patients who had not been treated at all, the nocturnal fall in oxygen saturation was greater (P=0.034) in those who had recurrence of AF (n=20) than in those without recurrence (n=5). Patients with untreated OSA have a higher recurrence of AF after cardioversion than patients without a polysomnographic diagnosis of sleep apnea. Appropriate treatment with CPAP in OSA patients is associated with lower recurrence of AF.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                ++48 22 599-19-58 , anna.platek@wum.edu.pl
                Journal
                Sleep Breath
                Sleep Breath
                Sleep & Breathing = Schlaf & Atmung
                Springer International Publishing (Cham )
                1520-9512
                1522-1709
                2 February 2017
                2 February 2017
                2017
                : 21
                : 3
                : 601-606
                Affiliations
                ISNI 0000000113287408, GRID grid.13339.3b, 1st Department of Cardiology, , Medical University of Warsaw, ; 1A Banacha Street, 02-097 Warsaw, Poland
                Article
                1469
                10.1007/s11325-017-1469-6
                5585292
                28155102
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                Categories
                Sleep Breathing Physiology and Disorders • Original Article
                Custom metadata
                © Springer International Publishing AG 2017

                Medicine

                obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular risk, risk assessment

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