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      Astaxanthin decreased oxidative stress and inflammation and enhanced immune response in humans

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          Abstract

          Background

          Astaxanthin modulates immune response, inhibits cancer cell growth, reduces bacterial load and gastric inflammation, and protects against UVA-induced oxidative stress in in vitro and rodent models. Similar clinical studies in humans are unavailable. Our objective is to study the action of dietary astaxanthin in modulating immune response, oxidative status and inflammation in young healthy adult female human subjects.

          Methods

          Participants (averaged 21.5 yr) received 0, 2, or 8 mg astaxanthin (n = 14/diet) daily for 8 wk in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Immune response was assessed on wk 0, 4 and 8, and tuberculin test performed on wk 8.

          Results

          Plasma astaxanthin increased ( P < 0.01) dose-dependently after 4 or 8 wk of supplementation. Astaxanthin decreased a DNA damage biomarker after 4 wk but did not affect lipid peroxidation. Plasma C-reactive protein concentration was lower (P < 0.05) on wk 8 in subjects given 2 mg astaxanthin. Dietary astaxanthin stimulated mitogen-induced lymphoproliferation, increased natural killer cell cytotoxic activity, and increased total T and B cell subpopulations, but did not influence populations of T helper, T cytotoxic or natural killer cells. A higher percentage of leukocytes expressed the LFA-1 marker in subjects given 2 mg astaxanthin on wk 8. Subjects fed 2 mg astaxanthin had a higher tuberculin response than unsupplemented subjects. There was no difference in TNF and IL-2 concentrations, but plasma IFN-γ and IL-6 increased on wk 8 in subjects given 8 mg astaxanthin.

          Conclusion

          Therefore, dietary astaxanthin decreases a DNA damage biomarker and acute phase protein, and enhances immune response in young healthy females.

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          Most cited references29

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          Differential effects of carotenoids on lipid peroxidation due to membrane interactions: X-ray diffraction analysis.

          The biological benefits of certain carotenoids may be due to their potent antioxidant properties attributed to specific physico-chemical interactions with membranes. To test this hypothesis, we measured the effects of various carotenoids on rates of lipid peroxidation and correlated these findings with their membrane interactions, as determined by small angle X-ray diffraction approaches. The effects of the homochiral carotenoids (astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, lutein, beta-carotene, lycopene) on lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH) generation were evaluated in membranes enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids. Apolar carotenoids, such as lycopene and beta-carotene, disordered the membrane bilayer and showed a potent pro-oxidant effect (>85% increase in LOOH levels) while astaxanthin preserved membrane structure and exhibited significant antioxidant activity (40% decrease in LOOH levels). These findings indicate distinct effects of carotenoids on lipid peroxidation due to membrane structure changes. These contrasting effects of carotenoids on lipid peroxidation may explain differences in their biological activity.
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            Plasma appearance and distribution of astaxanthin E/Z and R/S isomers in plasma lipoproteins of men after single dose administration of astaxanthin.

            Appearance, pharmacokinetics, and distribution of astaxanthin E/Z and R/S isomers in plasma and lipoprotein fractions were studied in 3 middle-aged male volunteers (37-43 years) after ingestion of a single meal containing a 100 mg dose of astaxanthin. The astaxanthin source consisted of 74% all-E-, 9% 9Z-, 17% 13Z-astaxanthin (3R,3'R-, 3R,3'S; meso-, and 3S,3'S-astaxanthin in a 1:2:1 ratio). The plasma astaxanthin concentration--time curves were measured during 72 hr. Maximum levels of astaxanthin (1.3 +/- 0.1 mg/L) were reached 6.7 +/- 1.2 hr after administration, and the plasma astaxanthin elimination half-life was 21 +/- 11 hr. 13Z-Astaxanthin accumulated selectively, whereas the 3 and 3'R/S astaxanthin distribution was similar to that of the experimental meal. Astaxanthin was present mainly in very low-density lipoproteins containing chylomicrons (VLDL/CM; 36-64% of total astaxanthin), whereas low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) contained 29% and 24% of total astaxanthin, respectively. The astaxanthin isomer distribution in plasma, VLDL/CM, LDL, and HDL was not affected by time. The results indicate that a selective process increases the relative proportion of astaxanthin Z-isomers compared to the all-E-astaxanthin during blood uptake and that astaxanthin E/Z isomers have similar pharmacokinetics.
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              Astaxanthin limits exercise-induced skeletal and cardiac muscle damage in mice.

              Dietary antioxidants may attenuate oxidative damage from strenuous exercise in various tissues. Beneficial effects of the antioxidant astaxanthin have been demonstrated in vitro, but not yet in vivo. We investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with astaxanthin on oxidative damage induced by strenuous exercise in mouse gastrocnemius and heart. C57BL/6 mice (7 weeks old) were divided into groups: rested control, intense exercise, and exercise with astaxanthin supplementation. After 3 weeks of exercise acclimation, both exercise groups ran on a treadmill at 28 m/min until exhaustion. Exercise-increased 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified protein and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in gastrocnemius and heart were blunted in the astaxanthin group. Increases in plasma creatine kinase activity, and in myeloperoxidase activity in gastrocnemius and heart, also were lessened by astaxanthin. Astaxanthin showed accumulation in gastrocnemius and heart from the 3 week supplementation. Astaxanthin can attenuate exercise-induced damage in mouse skeletal muscle and heart, including an associated neutrophil infiltration that induces further damage.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nutr Metab (Lond)
                Nutrition & Metabolism
                BioMed Central
                1743-7075
                2010
                5 March 2010
                : 7
                : 18
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Food Science, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6376 USA
                [2 ]Food and Nutrition, Inha University, Incheon, Korea
                [3 ]La Haye Labs, Inc, Redmond, WA, USA
                Article
                1743-7075-7-18
                10.1186/1743-7075-7-18
                2845588
                20205737
                92710c80-cb78-4f88-8658-e04badcbc4d7
                Copyright ©2010 Park et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 8 January 2010
                : 5 March 2010
                Categories
                Research

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                Nutrition & Dietetics

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