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      Molecular Mechanisms by Which Iron Induces Nitric Oxide Synthesis in Cultured Proximal Tubule Cells

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          Abstract

          Nitric oxide (NO) levels are increased after exposure of cultured proximal tubule cells (PTC) to non-haem iron, potentially contributing to PTC injury in disease states associated with increased iron exposure, including proteinuric renal disease. The mechanisms underlying this observed increase were investigated. After 3 h exposure to 400 µ M nitrilotriacetate (NTA)-Fe, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression was significantly increased, with a corresponding increase in iNOS protein after 12 h. The nuclear binding activity of NFĸB with 400 µ M NTA-Fe was increased, and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), an antioxidant inhibitor of NFĸB, prevented both activation of NFĸB and NO production in response to NTA-Fe. Inhibition of protein tyrosine kinase reduced iNOS mRNA, iNOS protein levels and NO production in response to NTA-Fe. The effect of tyrosine kinase inhibition on NFĸB activation was variable, with herbimycin but not genistein having an inhibitory effect. Activation of either protein kinase A or C increased iNOS mRNA and protein levels, and NO production in response to NTA-Fe, whereas only the protein kinase C activator phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu) had a stimulatory effect on NFĸB activation. The protein kinase A activator forskolin did not alter iron-induced activation of NFĸB. These data suggest that the observed increase in NO production by PTC in response to iron is due to increased transcription of iNOS. The transcriptional regulation of this response is complex and involves NFĸB, protein tyrosine kinase and the protein kinases A and C.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Ethinylestradiol does not enhance the expression of nitric oxide synthase in bovine endothelial cells but increases the release of bioactive nitric oxide by inhibiting superoxide anion production.

          Estradiol is known to exert a protective effect against the development of atherosclerosis, but the mechanism by which this protection is mediated is unclear. Since animal studies strongly suggest that production of endothelium-derived relaxing factor is enhanced by estradiol, we have examined the effect of estrogens on nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) activity, protein, and mRNA in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. In reporter cells rich in guanylate cyclase, it has been observed that long-term treatment (> or = 24 hr) with ethinylestradiol (EE2) dose-dependently increased guanylate cyclase-activating factor activity in the conditioned medium of endothelial cells. However, conversion of L-[14C]arginine to L-[14C]citrulline by endothelial cell homogenate or quantification of nitrite and nitrate released by intact cells in the conditioned medium did not reveal any change in NOS activity induced by EE2 treatment. Similarly, Western and Northern blot analyses did not reveal any change in the endothelial NOS protein and mRNA content in response to EE2. However, EE2 dose- and time-dependently decreased superoxide anion production in the conditioned medium of endothelial cells with an EC50 value (0.1 nM) close to that which increased guanylate cyclase-activating factor activity (0.5 nM). Both of these effects were completely prevented by the antiestrogens tamoxifen and RU54876. Thus, endothelium exposure to estrogens appears to induce a receptor-mediated antioxidant effect that enhances the biological activity of endothelium-derived NO. These effects could account at least in part for the vascular protective properties of these hormones.
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            Heat Shock Protein 70 Suppresses Astroglial-inducible Nitric-oxide Synthase Expression by Decreasing NFκB Activation

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              Protein kinase C eta mediates lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric-oxide synthase expression in primary astrocytes.

              The signaling pathway involved in protein kinase C (PKC) activation and role of PKC isoforms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) release were studied in primary cerebellar astrocytes. LPS caused a dose- and time-dependent increase in NO release and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genestein, the phosphatidylcholine-phospholipase C inhibitor, D609, and the phosphatidate phosphodrolase inhibitor, propranolol, attenuated the LPS effects, whereas the PI-PLC inhibitor, U73122, had no effect. The PKC inhibitors (staurosporine, Ro 31-8220, Go 6976, and calphostin C) also inhibited LPS-induced NO release and iNOS expression. However, long term (24 h) pretreatment of cells with 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) did not affect the LPS response. Previous results have shown that TPA-induced translocation, but not down-regulation, of PKCeta occurs in astrocytes (Chen, C. C., and Chen, W. C. (1996) Glia 17, 63-71), suggesting possible involvement of PKCeta in LPS-mediated effects. Treatment with antisense oligonucleotides for PKCeta or delta, another isoform abundantly expressed in astrocytes, demonstrated the involvement of PKCeta, but not delta, in LPS-mediated effects. Stimulation of cells for 1 h with LPS caused activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kB in the nuclei as detected by the formation of a NF-kB-specific DNA-protein complex; this effect was inhibited by genestein, D609, propranolol, or Ro 31-8220 or by PKCeta antisense oligonucleotides, but not by long term TPA treatment. These data suggest that in astrocytes, LPS might activate phosphatidylcholine-phospholipase C and phosphatidylcholine-phospholipase D through an upstream protein tyrosine kinase to induce PKC activation. Of the PKC isoforms present in these cells, only activation of PKCeta by LPS resulted in the stimulation of NF-kB-specific DNA-protein binding and then initiated the iNOS expression and NO release. This is further evidence demonstrating that different members of the PKC family within a single cell are involved in specific physiological responses.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                EXN
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2129
                2001
                June 2001
                23 April 2001
                : 9
                : 3
                : 198-204
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Renal Medicine and bStorr Liver Unit, The University of Sydney at Westmead Hospital, Westmead, N.S.W., Australia
                Article
                52612 Exp Nephrol 2001;9:198–204
                10.1159/000052612
                11340304
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, References: 31, Pages: 7
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/52612
                Categories
                Original Paper

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