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      Effects of Bifidobacterium infantis on cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant and insulin-like growth factor-1 in the ileum of rats with endotoxin injury

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          Abstract

          BACKGROUND

          The digestive tract is the maximal immunizing tissue in the body, and mucosal integrity and functional status of the gut is very important to maintain a healthy organism. Severe infection is one of the most common causes of gastrointestinal dysfunction, and the pathogenesis is closely related to endotoxemia and intestinal barrier injury. Bifidobacterium is one of the main probiotics in the human body that is involved in digestion, absorption, metabolism, nutrition, and immunity. Bifidobacterium plays an important role in maintaining the intestinal mucosal barrier integrity. This study investigated the protective mechanism of Bifidobacterium during ileal injury in rats.

          AIM

          To investigate the effects of Bifidobacterium on cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in the ileum of rats with endotoxin injury.

          METHODS

          Preweaning rats were randomly divided into three groups: Control (group C), model (group E) and treatment (group T). Group E was intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to create an animal model of intestinal injury. Group T was intragastrically administered Bifidobacterium suspension 7 d before LPS. Group C was intraperitoneally injected with normal saline. The rats were killed at 2, 6 or 12 h after LPS or physiological saline injection to collect ileal tissue samples. The expression of ileal CINC mRNA was evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and expression of ileal IGF-1 protein and mRNA was detected by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR, respectively.

          RESULTS

          The ileum of rats in Group C did not express CINC mRNA, ileums from Group E expressed high levels, which was then significantly decreased in Group T ( F = 23.947, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in CINC mRNA expression at different times ( F = 0.665, P > 0.05). There was a high level of IGF-1 brown granules in ileal crypts and epithelial cells in Group C, sparse staining in Group E, and dark, dense brown staining in Group T. There was a significant difference between Groups C and E and Groups E and T ( P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in IGF-1 protein expression at different times ( F = 1.269, P > 0.05). IGF-1 mRNA expression was significantly different among the three groups ( P < 0.05), though not at different times ( F = 0.086, P > 0.05).

          CONCLUSION

          Expression of CINC mRNA increased in the ileum of preweaning rats with endotoxin injury, and exogenous administration of Bifidobacterium reduced CINC mRNA expression. IGF-1 protein and mRNA expression decreased in the ileum of preweaning rats with endotoxin injury, and exogenous administration of Bifidobacterium prevented the decrease in IGF-1 expression. Bifidobacterium may increase IGF-1 expression and enhance intestinal immune barrier function in rats with endotoxin injury.

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          Most cited references 41

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          Effects of Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 on Hepatic Steatosis in Zucker Rats

          We have previously described the safety and immunomodulatory effects of Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 in healthy volunteers. The scope of this work was to evaluate the effects of these probiotic strains on the hepatic steatosis of obese rats. We used the Zucker rat as a genetic model of obesity. Zucker-Lepr fa/fa rats received one of three probiotic strains, a mixture of L. paracasei CNCM I-4034 and B. breve CNCM I-4035, or a placebo for 30 days. An additional group of Zucker-lean+/fa rats received a placebo for 30 days. No alterations in intestinal histology, in the epithelial, lamina propria, muscular layers of the ileal or colonic mucosa, or the submucosae, were observed in any of the experimental groups. Triacylglycerol content decreased in the liver of Zucker-Lepr fa/fa rats that were fed L. rhamnosus, B. breve, or the mixture of B. breve and L. paracasei. Likewise, the area corresponding to neutral lipids was significantly smaller in the liver of all four groups of Zucker-Lepr fa/fa rats that received probiotics than in rats fed the placebo. Zucker-Lepr fa/fa rats exhibited significantly greater serum LPS levels than Zucker-lean+/fa rats upon administration of placebo for 30 days. In contrast, all four groups of obese Zucker-Lepr fa/fa rats that received LAB strains exhibited serum LPS concentrations similar to those of Zucker-lean+/fa rats. Serum TNF-α levels decreased in the Zucker-Lepr fa/fa rats that received B. breve, L. rhamnosus, or the mixture, whereas L. paracasei feeding decreased IL-6 levels in the serum of Zucker-Lepr fa/fa rats. In conclusion, the probiotic strains reduced hepatic steatosis in part by lowering serum LPS, and had an anti-inflammatory effect in obese Zucker rats.
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            Animal models of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Animal models of infant short bowel syndrome: translational relevance and challenges.

            Intestinal failure (IF), due to short bowel syndrome (SBS), results from surgical resection of a major portion of the intestine, leading to reduced nutrient absorption and need for parenteral nutrition (PN). The incidence is highest in infants and relates to preterm birth, necrotizing enterocolitis, atresia, gastroschisis, volvulus, and aganglionosis. Patient outcomes have improved, but there is a need to develop new therapies for SBS and to understand intestinal adaptation after different diseases, resection types, and nutritional and pharmacological interventions. Animal studies are needed to carefully evaluate the cellular mechanisms, safety, and translational relevance of new procedures. Distal intestinal resection, without a functioning colon, results in the most severe complications and adaptation may depend on the age at resection (preterm, term, young, adult). Clinically relevant therapies have recently been suggested from studies in preterm and term PN-dependent SBS piglets, with or without a functional colon. Studies in rats and mice have specifically addressed the fundamental physiological processes underlying adaptation at the cellular level, such as regulation of mucosal proliferation, apoptosis, transport, and digestive enzyme expression, and easily allow exogenous or genetic manipulation of growth factors and their receptors (e.g., glucagon-like peptide 2, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1, epidermal growth factor, keratinocyte growth factor). The greater size of rats, and especially young pigs, is an advantage for testing surgical procedures and nutritional interventions (e.g., PN, milk diets, long-/short-chain lipids, pre- and probiotics). Conversely, newborn pigs (preterm or term) and weanling rats provide better insights into the developmental aspects of treatment for SBS in infants owing to their immature intestines. The review shows that a balance among practical, economical, experimental, and ethical constraints will determine the choice of SBS model for each clinical or basic research question.
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              Cholesterol-lowering probiotics: in vitro selection and in vivo testing of bifidobacteria.

              Thirty-four strains of bifidobacteria belonging to Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium animalis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bifidobacterium pseu-docatenulatum were assayed in vitro for the ability to assimilate cholesterol and for bile salt hydrolase (BSH) against glycocholic and taurodeoxycholic acids (GCA and TDCA). Cholesterol assimilation was peculiar characteristic of two strains belonging to the species B. bifidum (B. bifidum MB 107 and B. bifidum MB 109), which removed 81 and 50 mg of cholesterol per gram of biomass, being the median of specific cholesterol absorption by bifidobacteria 19 mg/g. Significant differences in BSH activities were not established among bifidobacterial species. However, the screening resulted in the selection of promising strains able to efficiently deconjugate GCA and TDCA. No relationship was recognized between BSH phenotype and the extent of cholesterol assimilation. On the basis of cholesterol assimilation or BSHGCA and BSHTDCA activities, B. bifidum MB 109 (DSMZ 23731), B. breve MB 113 (DSMZ 23732), and B. animalis subsp. lactis MB 2409 (DSMZ 23733) were combined in a probiotic mixture to be fed to hypercholesterolemic rats. The administration of this probiotic formulation resulted in a significant reduction of total cholesterol and low-density cholesterol (LDL-C), whereas it did not affect high-density cholesterol (HDL-C) and HDL-C/LDL-C ratio.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                World J Gastroenterol
                World J. Gastroenterol
                WJG
                World Journal of Gastroenterology
                Baishideng Publishing Group Inc
                1007-9327
                2219-2840
                21 June 2019
                21 June 2019
                : 25
                : 23
                : 2924-2934
                Affiliations
                Department of Pediatrics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086, Heilongjiang Province, China
                Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004, Liaoning Province, China
                Department of Pediatrics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086, Heilongjiang Province, China
                Department of Pediatrics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086, Heilongjiang Province, China
                Department of Pediatrics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086, Heilongjiang Province, China. qushuqiang1962@ 123456hotmail.com
                Author notes

                Author contributions: Wang W and Sun M designed the experiment; all authors took part in this experiment; Zheng Y collected the data; Sun L performed analysis of the data; all authors participated in writing and critical revision of the manuscript; Qu S provided final approval of the manuscript.

                Supported by the Education Department of Heilongjiang Province, China, No. 11521124.

                Corresponding author: Shu-Qiang Qu, PhD, Chief Doctor, Director, Professor, Teacher, Pediatrician, Department of Pediatrics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, No. 246 Xuefu Road, Harbin 150086, Heilongjiang Province, China. qushuqiang1962@ 123456hotmail.com

                Telephone: +86-451-86297730 Fax: +86-451-86297730

                Article
                jWJG.v25.i23.pg2924
                10.3748/wjg.v25.i23.2924
                6589735
                ©The Author(s) 2019. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.

                This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial.

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                Basic Study

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