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      Prevalence and risk factors of eye diseases in adult patients with obstructive sleep apnoea: results from the SLE.E.P.Y cohort study

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          To assess the occurrence of glaucoma, eyelid, corneal and macular disorders in a cohort of patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) diagnosed by overnight polysomnography and to investigate into the risk factors for the above eye diseases (EDs).


          Cross-sectional cohort study between 2014 and 2015.


          Unit of Respiratory Medicine and Eye Clinic of the University of Verona.


          431 consecutive patients were considered eligible. Of these, 87 declined to participate, 35 were untraceable and 13 were deceased.


          A complete ophthalmic evaluation of both eyes for each patient.

          Primary and secondary outcome measures

          Best-corrected distance visual acuity, intraocular pressure, corneal, macular and optic nerve optical coherence tomography, ocular aberrometry, optic nerve laser polarimetry, visual field test, and eyelid examination.


          296 patients aged 64.5±12.8 years, 23% female and 77% male, underwent ophthalmic examination. There was 56% (n=166) prevalence of eyelid disorders, 27% (n=80) of corneal disorders, 13% (n=39) of macular disorders and 11% (n=33) of glaucoma. Advancing age was not associated with the severity of OSA, while significant differences were found for gender, body mass index, Oxygen Desaturation Index, smoking habit, hypertension and diabetes. Severe OSA was significantly associated with glaucoma (OR, 95% CI 1.05 to 5.93, p=0.037).


          EDs were more prevalent in our patinets with OSA than in the general population. Severe Apnoea/Hypopnoea Index level seemed to play a role as risk factor only for glaucoma.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Sleep-related breathing disorders in adults: recommendations for syndrome definition and measurement techniques in clinical research. The Report of an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Task Force.

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            Clinical guidelines for the use of unattended portable monitors in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea in adult patients. Portable Monitoring Task Force of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

            Based on a review of literature and consensus, the Portable Monitoring Task Force of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) makes the following recommendations: unattended portable monitoring (PM) for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) should be performed only in conjunction with a comprehensive sleep evaluation. Clinical sleep evaluations using PM must be supervised by a practitioner with board certification in sleep medicine or an individual who fulfills the eligibility criteria for the sleep medicine certification examination. PM may be used as an alternative to polysomnography (PSG) for the diagnosis of OSA in patients with a high pretest probability of moderate to severe OSA. PM is not appropriate for the diagnosis of OSA in patients with significant comorbid medical conditions that may degrade the accuracy of PM. PM is not appropriate for the diagnostic evaluation of patients suspected of having comorbid sleep disorders. PM is not appropriate for general screening of asymptomatic populations. PM may be indicated for the diagnosis of OSA in patients for whom in-laboratory PSG is not possible by virtue of immobility, safety, or critical illness. PM may also be indicated to monitor the response to non-CPAP treatments for sleep apnea. At a minimum, PM must record airflow, respiratory effort, and blood oxygenation. The airflow, effort, and oximetric biosensors conventionally used for in-laboratory PSG should be used in PM. The Task Force recommends that PM testing be performed under the auspices of an AASM-accredited comprehensive sleep medicine program with written policies and procedures. An experienced sleep technologist/technician must apply the sensors or directly educate patients in sensor application. The PM device must allow for display of raw data with the capability of manual scoring or editing of automated scoring by a qualified sleep technician/technologist. A board certified sleep specialist, or an individual who fulfills the eligibility criteria for the sleep medicine certification examination, must review the raw data from PM using scoring criteria consistent with current published AASM standards. Under the conditions specified above, PM may be used for unattended studies in the patient's home. Afollow-up visit to review test results should be performed for all patients undergoing PM. Negative or technically inadequate PM tests in patients with a high pretest probability of moderate to severe OSA should prompt in-laboratory polysomnography.
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              Global consensus on keratoconus and ectatic diseases.

              Despite extensive knowledge regarding the diagnosis and management of keratoconus and ectatic corneal diseases, many controversies still exist. For that reason, there is a need for current guidelines for the diagnosis and management of these conditions. This project aimed to reach consensus of ophthalmology experts from around the world regarding keratoconus and ectatic diseases, focusing on their definition, concepts, clinical management, and surgical treatments. The Delphi method was followed with 3 questionnaire rounds and was complemented with a face-to-face meeting. Thirty-six panelists were involved and allocated to 1 of 3 panels: definition/diagnosis, nonsurgical management, or surgical treatment. The level of agreement considered for consensus was two thirds. Numerous agreements were generated in definitions, methods of diagnosing, and management of keratoconus and other ectatic diseases. Nonsurgical and surgical treatments for these conditions, including the use of corneal cross-linking and corneal transplantations, were presented in a stepwise approach. A flowchart describing a logical management sequence for keratoconus was created. This project resulted in definitions, statements, and recommendations for the diagnosis and management of keratoconus and other ectatic diseases. It also provides an insight into the current worldwide treatment of these conditions.

                Author and article information

                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Publishing Group (BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JR )
                22 October 2017
                : 7
                : 10
                [1 ] departmentDepartment of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences , Eye Clinic, University of Verona , Verona, Italy
                [2 ] The Veneto Eye Bank Foundation , Venezia Zelarino, Italy
                [3 ] departmentEpidemiology Unit , The Veneto Region , Padova, Italy
                [4 ] OU Ophthalmology, San Bassiano Hospital , Bassano Del Grappa, Vicenza, Italy
                [5 ] departmentUnit of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Medicine , University of Verona , Verona, Italy
                Author notes
                [Correspondence to ] Dr Emilio Pedrotti; emilio.pedrotti@
                © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

                This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:

                Respiratory Medicine
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                neuro-ophthalmology, medical retina, glaucoma, corneal and external diseases, epidemiology, asthma


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