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      The influence of maternal body mass index and physical activity on select cardiovascular risk factors of preadolescent Hispanic children


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          Maternal obesity and physical inactivity have been identified as correlates of overweight and obesity and physical inactivity in older preadolescents; however, no study has explored this relationship in Hispanic preadolescents. Furthermore, the relation between maternal physical activity (PA) and blood pressure (BP) in Hispanic preadolescents has not been examined.


          This study aimed to assess the associations between Hispanic mothers’ PA and body mass index (BMI) and their preadolescents’ PA, screen time, BP, and BMI.


          Data of 118 mother-child (aged 2–10 years) dyads enrolled in a cross-sectional study of metabolic syndrome in Hispanic preadolescents at a community health center in Johnson City, TN were used. Parent and child questionnaires were used to ascertain mothers’ BMI and PA and preadolescents’ PA and screen time. Preadolescents’ height, weight, and BP were measured. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association between child and maternal variables, adjusting for mother’s education and the child’s sex and age.


          Pradolescents of obese mothers were more likely than preadolescents of mothers with normal weight to engage in less than three days of at least 60 min of vigorous PA per week (OR: 6.47, 95% CI [1.61–26.0]). Preadolescents whose mothers did not engage in moderate PA were more likely to engage in less than three days of at least 60 min of vigorous PA per week (OR: 2.92, CI [1.18–7.24]); and have elevated BP (OR: 2.50, 95% CI [1.02–4.53]) than preadolescents whose mothers engaged in moderate PA.


          Our results show a negative relationship between maternal obesity and preadolescent PA, and a positive relationship between lower maternal PA and elevated BP and lower PA in Hispanic preadolescents. This suggests that interventions aimed at improving Hispanic preadolescents’ PA and BP may use maternal PA and maternal BMI (for preadolescent PA) as a modification strategy to improve health in Hispanic preadolescents.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Severe obesity in children and adolescents: identification, associated health risks, and treatment approaches: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

          Severe obesity afflicts between 4% and 6% of all youth in the United States, and the prevalence is increasing. Despite the serious immediate and long-term cardiovascular, metabolic, and other health consequences of severe pediatric obesity, current treatments are limited in effectiveness and lack widespread availability. Lifestyle modification/behavior-based treatment interventions in youth with severe obesity have demonstrated modest improvement in body mass index status, but participants have generally remained severely obese and often regained weight after the conclusion of the treatment programs. The role of medical management is minimal, because only 1 medication is currently approved for the treatment of obesity in adolescents. Bariatric surgery has generally been effective in reducing body mass index and improving cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors; however, reports of long-term outcomes are few, many youth with severe obesity do not qualify for surgery, and access is limited by lack of insurance coverage. To begin to address these challenges, the purposes of this scientific statement are to (1) provide justification for and recommend a standardized definition of severe obesity in children and adolescents; (2) raise awareness of this serious and growing problem by summarizing the current literature in this area in terms of the epidemiology and trends, associated health risks (immediate and long-term), and challenges and shortcomings of currently available treatment options; and (3) highlight areas in need of future research. Innovative behavior-based treatment, minimally invasive procedures, and medications currently under development all need to be evaluated for their efficacy and safety in this group of patients with high medical and psychosocial risks.
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            Neighborhood environments and physical activity among adults in 11 countries.

            Understanding environmental correlates of physical activity can inform policy changes. Surveys were conducted in 11 countries using the same self-report environmental variables and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, allowing analyses with pooled data. The participating countries were Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, China (Hong Kong), Japan, Lithuania, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, and the U.S., with a combined sample of 11,541 adults living in cities. Samples were reasonably representative, and seasons of data collection were comparable. Participants indicated whether seven environmental attributes were present in their neighborhood. Outcomes were measures of whether health-related guidelines for physical activity were met. Data were collected in 2002-2003 and analyzed in 2007. Logistic regression analyses evaluated associations of physical activity with environmental attributes, adjusted for age, gender, and clustering within country. Five of seven environmental variables were significantly related to meeting physical activity guidelines, ranging from access to low-cost recreation facilities (OR=1.16) to sidewalks on most streets (OR=1.47). A graded association was observed, with the most activity-supportive neighborhoods having 100% higher rates of sufficient physical activity compared to those with no supportive attributes. Results suggest neighborhoods built to support physical activity have a strong potential to contribute to increased physical activity. Designing neighborhoods to support physical activity can now be defined as an international public health issue.
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              Prevalence of and trends in dyslipidemia and blood pressure among US children and adolescents, 1999-2012.

              Recent national data suggest there were improvements in serum lipid concentrations among US children and adolescents between 1988 and 2010 but an increase in or stable blood pressure (BP) during a similar period.

                Author and article information

                PeerJ Inc. (San Diego, USA )
                13 December 2018
                : 6
                [1 ]Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, College of Public Health, East Tennessee State University , Johnson City, TN, United States of America
                [2 ]Department of Community and Behavioral Health, College of Public Health, East Tennessee State University , Johnson City, TN, United States of America
                [3 ]Department of Health Sciences, College of Public Health, East Tennessee State University , Johnson City, TN, United States of America
                [4 ]College of Nursing, East Tennessee State University , Johnson City, TN, United States of America
                [5 ]College of Clinical and Rehabilitative Health Sciences, East Tennessee State University , Johnson City, TN, United States of America
                ©2018 Alhassan et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed. For attribution, the original author(s), title, publication source (PeerJ) and either DOI or URL of the article must be cited.

                Funded by: Tennessee Board of Regents Diversity Grant
                Award ID: E210029
                Funded by: East Tennessee State University Research Development Committee Grants
                Award ID: RDC E82204
                Award ID: RDC E2250
                The research reported was supported by a Tennessee Board of Regents Diversity Grant (E210029) as well as two East Tennessee State University Research Development Committee Grants (RDC E82204 and RDC E2250). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Public Health


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