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      Rainforest transformation reallocates energy from green to brown food webs

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          Abstract

          Terrestrial animal biodiversity is increasingly being lost because of land-use change 1, 2 . However, functional and energetic consequences aboveground and belowground and across trophic levels in megadiverse tropical ecosystems remain largely unknown. To fill this gap, we assessed changes in energy fluxes across ‘green’ aboveground (canopy arthropods and birds) and ‘brown’ belowground (soil arthropods and earthworms) animal food webs in tropical rainforests and plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia. Our results showed that most of the energy in rainforests is channelled to the belowground animal food web. Oil palm and rubber plantations had similar or, in the case of rubber agroforest, higher total animal energy fluxes compared to rainforest but the key energetic nodes were distinctly different: in rainforest more than 90% of the total animal energy flux was channelled by arthropods in soil and canopy, whereas in plantations more than 50% of the energy was allocated to annelids (earthworms). Land-use change led to a consistent decline in multitrophic energy flux aboveground, whereas belowground food webs responded with reduced energy flux to higher trophic levels, down to −90%, and with shifts from slow (fungal) to fast (bacterial) energy channels and from faeces production towards consumption of soil organic matter. This coincides with previously reported soil carbon stock depletion 3 . Here we show that well-documented animal biodiversity declines with tropical land-use change 46 are associated with vast energetic and functional restructuring in food webs across aboveground and belowground ecosystem compartments.

          Abstract

          Conversion of rainforest to plantations in Sumatra leads to higher energetic losses in animal food webs aboveground than belowground, with the belowground energy being reallocated from diverse arthropod communities to invasive earthworms.

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          Fitting Linear Mixed-Effects Models Usinglme4

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            Mixed effects models and extensions in ecology with R

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              TOWARD A METABOLIC THEORY OF ECOLOGY

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                potapov.msu@gmail.com
                Journal
                Nature
                Nature
                Nature
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                0028-0836
                1476-4687
                14 February 2024
                14 February 2024
                2024
                : 627
                : 8002
                : 116-122
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Animal Ecology, University of Göttingen, ( https://ror.org/01y9bpm73) Göttingen, Germany
                [2 ]GRID grid.421064.5, ISNI 0000 0004 7470 3956, German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, ; Leipzig, Germany
                [3 ]Insitute of Biology, University of Leipzig, ( https://ror.org/03s7gtk40) Leipzig, Germany
                [4 ]Agroecology, University of Göttingen, ( https://ror.org/01y9bpm73) Göttingen, Germany
                [5 ]Functional Agrobiodiversity, University of Göttingen, ( https://ror.org/01y9bpm73) Göttingen, Germany
                [6 ]Department of Plant Protection, IPB University, ( https://ror.org/05smgpd89) Bogor, Indonesia
                [7 ]Botanical Garden of University of Bern, University of Bern, ( https://ror.org/02k7v4d05) Bern, Switzerland
                [8 ]Biodiversity, Macroecology & Biogeography, University of Göttingen, ( https://ror.org/01y9bpm73) Göttingen, Germany
                [9 ]Department of Soil Science, IPB University, ( https://ror.org/05smgpd89) Bogor, Indonesia
                [10 ]Centre for Transdisciplinary and Sustainability Sciences, IPB University, ( https://ror.org/05smgpd89) Bogor, Indonesia
                [11 ]Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, ( https://ror.org/013meh722) Cambridge, UK
                [12 ]Ecology of Tropical Agricultural Systems, University of Hohenheim, ( https://ror.org/00b1c9541) Stuttgart, Germany
                [13 ]Centre of Biodiversity and Sustainable Land Use, University of Göttigen, ( https://ror.org/01y9bpm73) Göttingen, Germany
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4456-1710
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5162-9779
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1820-7432
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1498-2362
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9019-1530
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2843-0737
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9507-6275
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7788-1940
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4350-9520
                Article
                7083
                10.1038/s41586-024-07083-y
                10917685
                38355803
                9288d2f6-ab0f-41fc-b1d3-3931f85e29d0
                © The Author(s) 2024

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 21 October 2022
                : 16 January 2024
                Categories
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                © Springer Nature Limited 2024

                Uncategorized
                ecological networks,ecosystem ecology,food webs
                Uncategorized
                ecological networks, ecosystem ecology, food webs

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