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      Heme in pathophysiology: a matter of scavenging, metabolism and trafficking across cell membranes

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          Abstract

          Heme (iron-protoporphyrin IX) is an essential co-factor involved in multiple biological processes: oxygen transport and storage, electron transfer, drug and steroid metabolism, signal transduction, and micro RNA processing. However, excess free-heme is highly toxic due to its ability to promote oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, thus leading to membrane injury and, ultimately, apoptosis. Thus, heme metabolism needs to be finely regulated. Intracellular heme amount is controlled at multiple levels: synthesis, utilization by hemoproteins, degradation and both intracellular and intercellular trafficking. This review focuses on recent findings highlighting the importance of controlling intracellular heme levels to counteract heme-induced oxidative stress. The contributions of heme scavenging from the extracellular environment, heme synthesis and incorporation into hemoproteins, heme catabolism and heme transport in maintaining adequate intracellular heme content are discussed. Particular attention is put on the recently described mechanisms of heme trafficking through the plasma membrane mediated by specific heme importers and exporters. Finally, the involvement of genes orchestrating heme metabolism in several pathological conditions is illustrated and new therapeutic approaches aimed at controlling heme metabolism are discussed.

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          Most cited references 164

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          Major facilitator superfamily.

          The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) is one of the two largest families of membrane transporters found on Earth. It is present ubiquitously in bacteria, archaea, and eukarya and includes members that can function by solute uniport, solute/cation symport, solute/cation antiport and/or solute/solute antiport with inwardly and/or outwardly directed polarity. All homologous MFS protein sequences in the public databases as of January 1997 were identified on the basis of sequence similarity and shown to be homologous. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the occurrence of 17 distinct families within the MFS, each of which generally transports a single class of compounds. Compounds transported by MFS permeases include simple sugars, oligosaccharides, inositols, drugs, amino acids, nucleosides, organophosphate esters, Krebs cycle metabolites, and a large variety of organic and inorganic anions and cations. Protein members of some MFS families are found exclusively in bacteria or in eukaryotes, but others are found in bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. All permeases of the MFS possess either 12 or 14 putative or established transmembrane alpha-helical spanners, and evidence is presented substantiating the proposal that an internal tandem gene duplication event gave rise to a primordial MFS protein prior to divergence of the family members. All 17 families are shown to exhibit the common feature of a well-conserved motif present between transmembrane spanners 2 and 3. The analyses reported serve to characterize one of the largest and most diverse families of transport proteins found in living organisms.
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            Ribosomopathies: human disorders of ribosome dysfunction.

            Ribosomopathies compose a collection of disorders in which genetic abnormalities cause impaired ribosome biogenesis and function, resulting in specific clinical phenotypes. Congenital mutations in RPS19 and other genes encoding ribosomal proteins cause Diamond-Blackfan anemia, a disorder characterized by hypoplastic, macrocytic anemia. Mutations in other genes required for normal ribosome biogenesis have been implicated in other rare congenital syndromes, Schwachman-Diamond syndrome, dyskeratosis congenita, cartilage hair hypoplasia, and Treacher Collins syndrome. In addition, the 5q- syndrome, a subtype of myelodysplastic syndrome, is caused by a somatically acquired deletion of chromosome 5q, which leads to haploinsufficiency of the ribosomal protein RPS14 and an erythroid phenotype highly similar to Diamond-Blackfan anemia. Acquired abnormalities in ribosome function have been implicated more broadly in human malignancies. The p53 pathway provides a surveillance mechanism for protein translation as well as genome integrity and is activated by defects in ribosome biogenesis; this pathway appears to be a critical mediator of many of the clinical features of ribosomopathies. Elucidation of the mechanisms whereby selective abnormalities in ribosome biogenesis cause specific clinical syndromes will hopefully lead to novel therapeutic strategies for these diseases.
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              A multidrug resistance transporter from human MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

              MCF-7/AdrVp is a multidrug-resistant human breast cancer subline that displays an ATP-dependent reduction in the intracellular accumulation of anthracycline anticancer drugs in the absence of overexpression of known multidrug resistance transporters such as P glycoprotein or the multidrug resistance protein. RNA fingerprinting led to the identification of a 2.4-kb mRNA that is overexpressed in MCF-7/AdrVp cells relative to parental MCF-7 cells. The mRNA encodes a 655-aa [corrected] member of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of transporters that we term breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Enforced expression of the full-length BCRP cDNA in MCF-7 breast cancer cells confers resistance to mitoxantrone, doxorubicin, and daunorubicin, reduces daunorubicin accumulation and retention, and causes an ATP-dependent enhancement of the efflux of rhodamine 123 in the cloned transfected cells. BCRP is a xenobiotic transporter that appears to play a major role in the multidrug resistance phenotype of MCF-7/AdrVp human breast cancer cells.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Pharmacol
                Front Pharmacol
                Front. Pharmacol.
                Frontiers in Pharmacology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1663-9812
                16 February 2014
                08 April 2014
                2014
                : 5
                Affiliations
                Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Sciences, Molecular Biotechnology Center, University of Turin Turin, Italy
                Author notes

                Edited by: Raffaella Gozzelino, Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, Portugal

                Reviewed by: Dominik J. Schaer, University of Zurich, Switzerland; Iqbal Hamza, University of Maryland, USA

                *Correspondence: Emanuela Tolosano, Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Sciences, Molecular Biotechnology Center, University of Turin, Via Nizza 52, 10126 Turin, Italy e-mail: emanuela.tolosano@ 123456unito.it

                This article was submitted to Drug Metabolism and Transport, a section of the journal Frontiers in Pharmacology.

                †Present address: Francesca Vinchi, Molecular Medicine Partnership Unit, Heidelberg University Hospital and EMBL, Heidelberg, Germany

                ‡These authors have contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                10.3389/fphar.2014.00061
                3986552
                24782769
                Copyright © 2014 Chiabrando, Vinchi, Fiorito, Mercurio and Tolosano.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 203, Pages: 24, Words: 21627
                Categories
                Pharmacology
                Review Article

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                ho-1, hemopexin, flvcr1, flvcr2, abcg2, hcp1/pcft

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