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      Peripheral Monocytosis following Acute Myocardial Infarction: Incidence and Its Possible Role as a Bedside Marker of the Extent of Cardiac Injury

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          Abstract

          Infiltration by mononuclear cells, mostly monocytes, into necrotic myocardial tissue can be detected beyond the 3rd day after the onset of infarction. These monocytes, mobilized by an unknown mechanism, initiate phagocytosis of necrotic tissue. We observed in patients having sustained an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) a significant increase in monocyte count 2–3 days following presentation, possibly representing peripheral recruitment of monocytes to the injured myocardium. To establish this observation, we prospectively documented monocyte and neutrophil counts throughout hospitalization in 186 consecutive patients (118 patients having sustained an AMI, 34 patients with angina, and 34 patients admitted for nonischemic reasons). Average monocyte count, which rose on the 2nd day and reached a peak on day 3, was significantly elevated in these patients compared with control subjects (p < 0.001). Neutrophil count exhibited a similar phase-shifted response. Peak monocyte count exceeded 800/mm<sup>3</sup> (upper limit of normal range) in 69 (58%) of AMI patients but in only 3 of the 68 (4%) non-AMI patients, yielding a sensitivity and specificity of 58 and 95%, respectively, for the diagnosis of AMI by this criterion. A significant correlation between maximal creatine kinase (CK) representing the extent of myocardial necrosis and peak monocyte count was shown (r = 0.51, p < 0.0001). A correlation between CK and monocyte count sum of days 1–3 (r = 0.51, p < 0.001) was found in a substudy of 25 patients with AMI. Similarly, a correlation was shown with cardiac function score as evaluated by 2-dimensional echocardiography (p < 0.001 and p < 0.008 for difference between CK sum and monocyte count sum of high and low echo score groups, respectively). Hence, the peak monocyte count recorded during the immediate postinfarction period provides a bedside marker of the extent of myocardial damage that is the preponderant prognostic determinant. If validated in future studies this phenomenon may have diagnostic and prognostic implications.

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          Case 38-1993

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            Author and article information

            Journal
            CRD
            Cardiology
            10.1159/issn.0008-6312
            Cardiology
            S. Karger AG
            0008-6312
            1421-9751
            1998
            July 1998
            14 August 1998
            : 90
            : 1
            : 52-57
            Affiliations
            a Department of Cardiology, Meir General Hospital, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba and b The Heart Institute, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
            Article
            6817 Cardiology 1998;90:52–57
            10.1159/000006817
            9693172
            © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

            Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

            Page count
            Pages: 6
            Categories
            Coronary Care

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