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      Cycle ergometer and inspiratory muscle training offer modest benefit compared with cycle ergometer alone: a comprehensive assessment in stable COPD patients

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          Abstract

          Background

          Cycle ergometer training (CET) has been shown to improve exercise performance of the quadriceps muscles in patients with COPD, and inspiratory muscle training (IMT) may improve the pressure-generating capacity of the inspiratory muscles. However, the effects of combined CET and IMT remain unclear and there is a lack of comprehensive assessment.

          Materials and methods

          Eighty-one patients with COPD were randomly allocated to three groups: 28 received 8 weeks of CET + IMT (combined training group), 27 received 8 weeks of CET alone (CET group), and 26 only received 8 weeks of free walking (control group). Comprehensive assessment including respiratory muscle strength, exercise capacity, pulmonary function, dyspnea, quality of life, emotional status, nutritional status, and body mass index, airflow obstruction, and exercise capacity index were measured before and after the pulmonary rehabilitation program.

          Results

          Respiratory muscle strength, exercise capacity, inspiratory capacity, dyspnea, quality of life, depression and anxiety, and nutritional status were all improved in the combined training and CET groups when compared with that in the control group ( P<0.05) after pulmonary rehabilitation program. Inspiratory muscle strength increased significantly in the combined training group when compared with that in the CET group (ΔPI max [maximal inspiratory pressure] 5.20±0.89 cmH 2O vs 1.32±0.91 cmH 2O; P<0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the other indices between the two groups ( P>0.05). Patients with weakened respiratory muscles in the combined training group derived no greater benefit than those without respiratory muscle weakness ( P>0.05). There were no significant differences in these indices between the patients with malnutrition and normal nutrition after pulmonary rehabilitation program ( P>0.05).

          Conclusion

          Combined training is more effective than CET alone for increasing inspiratory muscle strength. IMT may not be useful when combined with CET in patients with weakened inspiratory muscles. Nutritional status had slight impact on the effects of pulmonary rehabilitation. A comprehensive assessment approach can be more objective to evaluate the effects of combined CET and IMT.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease 2017 Report: GOLD Executive Summary.

          This Executive Summary of the Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management and Prevention of COPD, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2017 Report focuses primarily on the revised and novel parts of the document. The most significant changes include: (i) the assessment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been refined to separate the spirometric assessment from symptom evaluation. ABCD groups are now proposed to be derived exclusively from patient symptoms and their history of exacerbations; (ii) for each of the groups A to D, escalation strategies for pharmacological treatments are proposed; (iii) the concept of de-escalation of therapy is introduced in the treatment assessment scheme; (iv)non-pharmacological therapies are comprehensively presented and (v) the importance of co-morbid conditions in managing COPD is reviewed.
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            Impact of inspiratory muscle training in patients with COPD: what is the evidence?

            A meta-analysis including 32 randomised controlled trials on the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients was performed. Overall and subgroup analyses with respect to training modality (strength or endurance training, added to general exercise training) and patient characteristics were performed. Significant improvements were found in maximal inspiratory muscle strength (P(I,max); +13 cmH₂O), endurance time (+261 s), 6- or 12-min walking distance (+32 and +85 m respectively) and quality of life (+3.8 units). Dyspnoea was significantly reduced (Borg score -0.9 point; Transitional Dyspnoea Index +2.8 units). Endurance exercise capacity tended to improve, while no effects on maximal exercise capacity were found. Respiratory muscle endurance training revealed no significant effect on P(I,max), functional exercise capacity and dyspnoea. IMT added to a general exercise programme improved P(I,max) significantly, while functional exercise capacity tended to increase in patients with inspiratory muscle weakness (P(I,max) <60 cmH₂O). IMT improves inspiratory muscle strength and endurance, functional exercise capacity, dyspnoea and quality of life. Inspiratory muscle endurance training was shown to be less effective than respiratory muscle strength training. In patients with inspiratory muscle weakness, the addition of IMT to a general exercise training program improved P(I,max) and tended to improve exercise performance.
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              Nutritional assessment and therapy in COPD: a European Respiratory Society statement.

              Nutrition and metabolism have been the topic of extensive scientific research in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but clinical awareness of the impact dietary habits, nutritional status and nutritional interventions may have on COPD incidence, progression and outcome is limited. A multidisciplinary Task Force was created by the European Respiratory Society to deliver a summary of the evidence and description of current practice in nutritional assessment and therapy in COPD, and to provide directions for future research. Task Force members conducted focused reviews of the literature on relevant topics, advised by a methodologist. It is well established that nutritional status, and in particular abnormal body composition, is an important independent determinant of COPD outcome. The Task Force identified different metabolic phenotypes of COPD as a basis for nutritional risk profile assessment that is useful in clinical trial design and patient counselling. Nutritional intervention is probably effective in undernourished patients and probably most when combined with an exercise programme. Providing evidence of cost-effectiveness of nutritional intervention is required to support reimbursement and thus increase access to nutritional intervention. Overall, the evidence indicates that a well-balanced diet is beneficial to all COPD patients, not only for its potential pulmonary benefits, but also for its proven benefits in metabolic and cardiovascular risk.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2017
                06 September 2017
                : 12
                : 2655-2668
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China
                [2 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, The State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Disease, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Xin Chen, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Zhujiang Hosptial, Southern Medical University, 253 Gongye Road, Guangzhou 510282, China, Tel +86 20 6278 2296, Fax +86 20 6164 3010, Email chen_xin1020@ 123456163.com
                Rong-chang Chen, Department of Respiratory Medicine, The State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Disease, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, 151 Yanjiang Road, Guangzhou 510120, China, Email chenrc@ 123456vip.163.com
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                copd-12-2655
                10.2147/COPD.S140093
                5593419
                © 2017 Wang et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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