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      A Case of a Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor with Skeinoid Fibers of the Sigmoid Colon

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          Abstract

          An 80-year-old man was diagnosed with rectal cancer and underwent Hartmann's procedure. Although no tumors were identified during the preoperative examination, gross examination of the resected specimen incidentally revealed a submucosal tumor that was 9 mm in diameter at the oral side and located in the proximal stump of the specimen from the sigmoid colon. We suspected a concurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and performed a histopathological examination. An L-shaped nodular lesion measuring 9 × 6 mm was histologically composed of a patternless proliferation of spindle cells intermingled with eosinophilic globules. Cellular atypia, prominent mitotic figures and necrotic foci were not observed in the nodule. The spindle cells were positive for CD34, CD117 and vimentin, but negative for CD56, smooth muscle actin and S-100 protein. MIB-1 positivity was estimated to be as low as approximately 1-2%. Electron microscopy showed a bundle of wool-like fibers with a periodicity of approximately 40 nm. We therefore considered the lesion to be a low-risk GIST with skeinoid fibers in the large intestine. Although numerous previous reports have reported skeinoid fibers in the stomach and small intestines, there have been only 9 cases (including the present case) of skeinoid fibers in the large intestine.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the jejunum and ileum: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic study of 906 cases before imatinib with long-term follow-up.

          Gastrointestinal (GI) stromal tumors (GISTs), the specific KIT- or PDFGRA-signaling driven mesenchymal tumors, are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the GI tract. This study analyzed 1091 tumors originally classified as smooth muscle tumors of the small intestine (including jejunum or ileum and excluding duodenum), and found that 906 (83%) of these were GISTs. The GIST patients had 55:45 male-to-female ratio with a median age of 59 years (range, 13-94 years). Only 0.6% of tumors occurred before the age of 21 years and 13.6% before the age of 40 years. The tumors varied from 0.3 to 40 cm (median, 7.0 cm) and most commonly presented with GI bleeding or acute abdomen; 18% were incidentally detected. Histologically, the tumors were relatively monotypic with spindle cell (86%), epithelioid (5%), or mixed patterns (9%). Skeinoid fibers were present in 44% of cases, and their presence was associated with a favorable course. Most epithelioid tumors were malignant, and this morphology sometimes emerged from less cellular and less mitotically active spindle cell tumors, suggesting that it represented a transformation. KIT was immunohistochemically detected in 98%, CD34 in 40%, smooth muscle actin in 34%, desmin in 0.2%, and S-100 protein in 14% of the tumors tested. Outcome was strongly dependent on tumor size and mitotic activity, with an overall 39% tumor-related mortality, twice that for gastric GISTs. Only 10 cm and >5 mitoses/50 HPF metastasized. In stark contrast to corresponding gastric tumors, tumors >10 cm with mitotic activity 5/50 HPF had a high metastatic rate (>50%); tumors >5 cm < or = 10 cm with low mitotic rate had a 24% metastatic rate. The median survival times of patients with low mitotic rate tumors who died of disease decreased by increasing tumor size. KIT exon 11 mutations were detected in 90 cases, exon 9 mutation in 17 cases, and exon 17 mutation in 1 case; the presence of mutation or mutation type was not prognostically significant. There were no PDGFRA exon 12 or 8 mutations. Systematic data on prognosis of small intestinal GISTs of various size and mitotic activity categories can be helpful in management and surveillance of patients with these tumors.
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            Gastrointestinal stromal tumors, intramural leiomyomas, and leiomyosarcomas in the duodenum: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic study of 167 cases.

            In this study we analyzed the clinicopathologic features of duodenal smooth muscle or stromal tumors, including 156 GISTs, 6 leiomyomas (LMs), and 5 leiomyosarcomas (LMSs) from the files of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology and the Haartman Institute of the University of Helsinki. GISTs were documented as KIT positive (n = 109); 47 tumors were also included because of their histologic identity to KIT-positive cases. GIST-specific c-kit gene mutations were documented in exon 11 in 9 of 30 cases (30%) and exon 9 in 4 of 30 cases (13%). The GISTs occurred in patients with an age range of 10-88 years (median 56 years); 54% were male. Ten patients had neurofibromatosis type I; six of them had multiple GISTs. The GISTs ranged from small asymptomatic intramural or external nodules to large masses that extended into the retroperitoneum (median size 4.5 cm). They were mostly spindle cell tumors; three malignant GISTs had an epithelioid morphology, and 81 cases had skeinoid fibers. The tumors often coexpressed CD34 and KIT (54%) and were variably positive for smooth muscle actin (39%) and S-100 protein (20%) but never for desmin. A total of 86% of patients with tumors >5 cm with >5 mitoses/50 high power fields (HPF) (n = 21) died of disease, whereas no tumor <2 cm with <5 mitoses/50 HPF (n = 12) recurred or caused death. Long latency was common between primary operation and recurrences or metastases; either one occurred in 49 of 140 patients with follow-up (35%). No formula could accurately predict metastases, which occasionally developed even if mitotic activity was <5/50 HPF and size <5 cm. Metastases were in the abdominal cavity, liver, and rarely in bones and lungs but never in lymph nodes. Four actin- and desmin-positive and KIT-negative benign intramural LMs were similar to those more often seen in the esophagus. There were five LMSs, one of which formed a polypoid intraluminal mass; all were actin positive and KIT negative. The great majority of duodenal mesenchymal tumors are GISTs, which have a spectrum from small indolent tumors to overt sarcomas. LMs and LMSs are rare.
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              Gastrointestinal stromal tumor: consistent CD117 immunostaining for diagnosis, and prognostic classification based on tumor size and MIB-1 grade.

              Gain-of-function c-kit gene mutations and immunoreactivity of the c-kit protein CD117 in many gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) seem to support the idea that GISTs form a biologically distinct entity. In this study, the clinicopathologic features of 171 cases of GIST at a single institution were investigated for accurate diagnosis, and their relative risk for mortality was estimated by multivariate analysis. A GIST was defined diagnostically as a mesenchymal spindle or epithelioid cell lesion arising in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract with consistent immunoreactivity for CD117. The 171 patients with GISTs comprised 96 males (56.1%) and 75 females (43.9%), with a mean age of 59.4 years. One hundred and forty-five tumors (84.8%) occurred in the stomach, 18 (10.5%) in the small intestine, 6 (3.5%) in the rectum, and 2 (1.2%) in the esophagus. The median tumor size was 4.5 cm (range, 1.2 to 38 cm). Spindle-cell GISTs were present in 132 cases (77.2%); mixed GISTs, in 25 cases (14.6%); and epithelioid GISTs, in 14 cases (8.2%). Ten cases (55.6%) of spindled small intestine GIST contained eosinophilic skeinoid fibers. Immunoreactivity for CD34, h-caldesmon, alpha-smooth-muscle actin (SMA), desmin, and S-100 was observed in 156 (91.2%), 131 (76.6%), 46 (26.9%), 7 (4.1%), and 14 (8.2%) tumors, respectively. The percentage of CD34 positivity (38.8%) was low, in contrast with the high percentage of reactivity for SMA (77.8%) and S-100 (44.4%) in small intestine GISTs. By our histologic grading system using tumor differentiation, MIB-1 score, and necrosis, 129 tumors (75.4%) were classified as low grade and 42 tumors (24.6%) were classified as high grade. With a median follow-up period of 83.5 months for 122 living patients, the 5-year and 10-year survival rates were 81.7% and 67.4%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that both tumor size >10 cm and high grade were significantly associated with a poor outcome. As a result, GISTs >10 cm or high grade, 5 to 10 cm and low grade, and < or =5 cm and low grade were regarded as high risk, intermediate risk, and low risk for mortality, respectively. In conclusion, it is important to recognize GISTs that have a specific molecular pathogenesis and to separate them from other mesenchymal tumors with optimal immunostaining for CD117 when making a diagnosis and prognostic classification based on tumor size and MIB-1 grade. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRG
                CRG
                10.1159/issn.1662-0631
                Case Reports in Gastroenterology
                S. Karger AG
                1662-0631
                2014
                September – December 2014
                03 September 2014
                : 8
                : 3
                : 257-263
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Gastroenterological Surgery and Transplant Surgery, bCentral Clinical Laboratory, cDepartment of Pathology, Tokyo Medical University Hachioji Medical Center, and dThird Department of Surgery, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan
                Author notes
                *Tetsuo Sumi, Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Tokyo Medical University Hachioji Medical Center, 1163 Tate-machi, Hachioji, Tokyo 193-0998 (Japan), E-Mail ts3350@yahoo.co.jp
                Article
                367590 PMC4209273 Case Rep Gastroenterol 2014;8:257-263
                10.1159/000367590
                PMC4209273
                25408627
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Published: September 2014

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