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      Chronic otitis media following infection by non-01/non-0139 Vibrio cholerae: A case report and review of the literature

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          Abstract

          We report a case of a chronic mesotympanic otitis media with a smelly purulent secretion from both ears and recurrent otalgia over the last five years in a six-year-old girl after swimming in the German Baltic Sea. Besides Staphylococcus aureus a non-01/non-0139 Vibrio cholerae strain could be isolated from patient samples. An antibiotic therapy with ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone was administered followed by atticotomy combined with tympanoplasty. We conclude that V. cholerae should not be overlooked as a differential diagnosis to otitis infections, especially when patients present with extraintestinal infections after contact with brackish- or saltwater aquatic environments.

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          Most cited references 47

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          Cholera.

          Despite more than a century of study, cholera still presents challenges and surprises to us. Throughout most of the 20th century, cholera was caused by Vibrio cholerae of the O1 serogroup and the disease was largely confined to Asia and Africa. However, the last decade of the 20th century has witnessed two major developments in the history of this disease. In 1991, a massive outbreak of cholera started in South America, the one continent previously untouched by cholera in this century. In 1992, an apparently new pandemic caused by a previously unknown serogroup of V. cholerae (O139) began in India and Bangladesh. The O139 epidemic has been occurring in populations assumed to be largely immune to V. cholerae O1 and has rapidly spread to many countries including the United States. In this review, we discuss all aspects of cholera, including the clinical microbiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical features of the disease. Special attention will be paid to the extraordinary advances that have been made in recent years in unravelling the molecular pathogenesis of this infection and in the development of new generations of vaccines to prevent it.
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            The epidemiology of Vibrio infections in Florida, 1981-1993.

            The epidemiology of 690 Vibrio infections reported in Florida during 1981-1993 is described. Most infections resulted in one of three clinical syndromes: gastroenteritis (51%), wound infections (24%), or primary septicemia (17%). Case-fatality rates were 1% for gastroenteritis, 5% for wound infections, and 44% for primary septicemia. While gastroenteritis had little seasonal variation, 91% of primary septicemias and 86% of wound infections occurred from April through October, mostly due to the seasonality of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections. Infected wounds were largely a result of occupational activities around seawater. Some 68% of gastroenteritis cases and 83% of the primary septicemias were associated with raw oyster consumption. Preexisting liver disease was present in 48% of patients with primary septicemia and was associated with a fatal outcome in both wound infections (relative risk [RR], 28.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.3-127.5; P < .0001) and primary septicemia (RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-3.1; P < .01).
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              Chronic suppurative otitis media: a review.

              Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) remains one of the most common childhood chronic infectious diseases worldwide. Although microbial, immunological, and genetically determined factors, as well as Eustachian tube characteristics, are supposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of CSOM, many aspects of the pathogenesis of CSOM still need to be clarified. Optimal treatment strategy has not been established yet. The objective of this review is to present and evaluate the current state of knowledge of CSOM. Systematic narrative review. A PubMed search (1966-January 2005) was performed for studies on epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical management, and complications of CSOM. All included articles were categorized according to level of evidence. Five hundred and fifty papers were identified, of which 79 were found to be relevant for this review. The definition of CSOM was found to vary. CSOM is a multifactorial disease. Regarding management of CSOM, there is no consensus as to what the optimal management strategy should entail. No convincing evidence is available for most medical and surgical therapies. Topical quinolones have proven effective, but need further monitoring regarding adverse effects. Important goals in research of CSOM should be achieving consensus about the definition of CSOM and gaining more in-depth knowledge of the pathogenesis of CSOM, especially the role of innate and adaptive immunity. There is also a need for further well-designed studies on the effectiveness of various management strategies for CSOM.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                EUJMI
                European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-509X
                2062-8633
                13 August 2020
                14 October 2020
                : 10
                : 3
                : 186-191
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Otto Körner Rostock University Medical Center , Rostock, Germany
                [2 ] Institute of Medical Microbiology, Virology and Hygiene, Rostock University Medicical Center , Rostock, Germany
                [3 ] Institute of Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and Immunology Charité – University Medicine Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin and Berlin Institute of Health , Berlin, Germany
                Author notes
                *Corresponding author. E-mail: saramaria.vanbonn@ 123456med.uni-rostock.de
                Article
                10.1556/1886.2020.00013
                7592514
                32796134
                © 2020, The Authors

                Open Access statement. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes - if any - are indicated.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 48, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Case Study

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