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Land Use Land Cover Changes in Detection of Water Quality: A Study Based on Remote Sensing and Multivariate Statistics

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Journal of Environmental and Public Health

Hindawi

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      Abstract

      Malacca River water quality is affected due to rapid urbanization development. The present study applied LULC changes towards water quality detection in Malacca River. The method uses LULC, PCA, CCA, HCA, NHCA, and ANOVA. PCA confirmed DS, EC, salinity, turbidity, TSS, DO, BOD, COD, As, Hg, Zn, Fe, E. coli, and total coliform. CCA confirmed 14 variables into two variates; first variate involves residential and industrial activities; and second variate involves agriculture, sewage treatment plant, and animal husbandry. HCA and NHCA emphasize that cluster 1 occurs in urban area with Hg, Fe, total coliform, and DO pollution; cluster 3 occurs in suburban area with salinity, EC, and DS; and cluster 2 occurs in rural area with salinity and EC. ANOVA between LULC and water quality data indicates that built-up area significantly polluted the water quality through E. coli, total coliform, EC, BOD, COD, TSS, Hg, Zn, and Fe, while agriculture activities cause EC, TSS, salinity, E. coli, total coliform, arsenic, and iron pollution; and open space causes contamination of turbidity, salinity, EC, and TSS. Research finding provided useful information in identifying pollution sources and understanding LULC with river water quality as references to policy maker for proper management of Land Use area.

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      Most cited references 25

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        A review of large area monitoring of land cover change using Landsat data

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          Recent land use change in the Western Corn Belt threatens grasslands and wetlands.

          In the US Corn Belt, a recent doubling in commodity prices has created incentives for landowners to convert grassland to corn and soybean cropping. Here, we use land cover data from the National Agricultural Statistics Service Cropland Data Layer to assess grassland conversion from 2006 to 2011 in the Western Corn Belt (WCB): five states including North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Minnesota, and Iowa. Our analysis identifies areas with elevated rates of grass-to-corn/soy conversion (1.0-5.4% annually). Across the WCB, we found a net decline in grass-dominated land cover totaling nearly 530,000 ha. With respect to agronomic attributes of lands undergoing grassland conversion, corn/soy production is expanding onto marginal lands characterized by high erosion risk and vulnerability to drought. Grassland conversion is also concentrated in close proximity to wetlands, posing a threat to waterfowl breeding in the Prairie Pothole Region. Longer-term land cover trends from North Dakota and Iowa indicate that recent grassland conversion represents a persistent shift in land use rather than short-term variability in crop rotation patterns. Our results show that the WCB is rapidly moving down a pathway of increased corn and soybean cultivation. As a result, the window of opportunity for realizing the benefits of a biofuel industry based on perennial bioenergy crops, rather than corn ethanol and soy biodiesel, may be closing in the WCB.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
            Author notes

            Academic Editor: Evelyn O. Talbott

            Journal
            J Environ Public Health
            J Environ Public Health
            JEPH
            Journal of Environmental and Public Health
            Hindawi
            1687-9805
            1687-9813
            2017
            9 March 2017
            : 2017
            5362731
            10.1155/2017/7515130
            Copyright © 2017 Ang Kean Hua.

            This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

            Categories
            Research Article

            Public health

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