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      Uric Acid Causes Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by Entering Cells via a Functional Urate Transporter

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          Abstract

          Background: Soluble uric acid stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation by activating mitogen-activated protein kinases, and stimulating COX-2 and PDGF synthesis. The mechanism by which uric acid enters the VSMC is not known. We hypothesized that uric acid enters via transporters similar to that observed in the kidney. Methods: We studied the uptake of uric acid into rat VSMC under polarized and depolarized conditions and in the presence of organic anion transport (OAT) inhibitors (probenecid and benzbromarone) or p-aminohippurate (PAH). We also examined the ability of probenecid to inhibit uric acid-induced VSMC proliferation and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) synthesis. Results:<sup>14</sup>C-Urate uptake was shown in VSMC and was enhanced under depolarized conditions. <sup>14</sup>C-Uric acid uptake was inhibited by probenecid and benzbromarone, as well as by unlabelled urate and PAH. Probenecid blocked VSMC proliferation and MCP-1 expression in response to uric acid. VSMC did not express rOAT1-3, rOAT-5 or URAT-1 mRNA by PCR, but did express the voltage-sensitive transporter (UAT) by both PCR and RNase protection assay. Conclusions: Urate enters VSMC by both voltage-sensitive and OAT pathways, and the uptake, cell proliferation and MCP-1 expression can be blocked by OAT inhibitors. The specific transporter(s) responsible for the urate uptake remains to be determined.

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          Most cited references 24

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          A role for uric acid in the progression of renal disease.

          Hyperuricemia is associated with renal disease, but it is usually considered a marker of renal dysfunction rather than a risk factor for progression. Recent studies have reported that mild hyperuricemia in normal rats induced by the uricase inhibitor, oxonic acid (OA), results in hypertension, intrarenal vascular disease, and renal injury. This led to the hypothesis that uric acid may contribute to progressive renal disease. To examine the effect of hyperuricemia on renal disease progression, rats were fed 2% OA for 6 wk after 5/6 remnant kidney (RK) surgery with or without the xanthine oxidase inhibitor, allopurinol, or the uricosuric agent, benziodarone. Renal function and histologic studies were performed at 6 wk. Given observations that uric acid induces vascular disease, the effect of uric acid on vascular smooth muscle cells in culture was also examined. RK rats developed transient hyperuricemia (2.7 mg/dl at week 2), but then levels returned to baseline by week 6 (1.4 mg/dl). In contrast, RK+OA rats developed higher and more persistent hyperuricemia (6 wk, 3.2 mg/dl). Hyperuricemic rats demonstrated higher BP, greater proteinuria, and higher serum creatinine than RK rats. Hyperuricemic RK rats had more renal hypertrophy and greater glomerulosclerosis (24.2 +/- 2.5 versus 17.5 +/- 3.4%; P < 0.05) and interstitial fibrosis (1.89 +/- 0.45 versus 1.52 +/- 0.47; P < 0.05). Hyperuricemic rats developed vascular disease consisting of thickening of the preglomerular arteries with smooth muscle cell proliferation; these changes were significantly more severe than a historical RK group with similar BP. Allopurinol significantly reduced uric acid levels and blocked the renal functional and histologic changes. Benziodarone reduced uric acid levels less effectively and only partially improved BP and renal function, with minimal effect on the vascular changes. To better understand the mechanism for the vascular disease, the expression of COX-2 and renin were examined. Hyperuricemic rats showed increased renal renin and COX-2 expression, the latter especially in preglomerular arterial vessels. In in vitro studies, cultured vascular smooth muscle cells incubated with uric acid also generated COX-2 with time-dependent proliferation, which was prevented by either a COX-2 or TXA-2 receptor inhibitor. Hyperuricemia accelerates renal progression in the RK model via a mechanism linked to high systemic BP and COX-2-mediated, thromboxane-induced vascular disease. These studies provide direct evidence that uric acid may be a true mediator of renal disease and progression.
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            Uric acid stimulates monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 production in vascular smooth muscle cells via mitogen-activated protein kinase and cyclooxygenase-2.

            Previous studies have reported that uric acid stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation in vitro. We hypothesized that uric acid may also have direct proinflammatory effects on VSMCs. Crystal- and endotoxin-free uric acid was found to increase VSMC monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner, peaking at 24 hours. Increased mRNA and protein expression occurred as early as 3 hours after uric acid incubation and was partially dependent on posttranscriptional modification of MCP-1 mRNA. In addition, uric acid activated the transcription factors nuclear factor-kappaB and activator protein-1, as well as the MAPK signaling molecules ERK p44/42 and p38, and increased cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression. Inhibition of p38 (with SB 203580), ERK 44/42 (with UO126 or PD 98059), or COX-2 (with NS398) each significantly suppressed uric acid-induced MCP-1 expression at 24 hours, implicating these pathways in the response to uric acid. The ability of both n-acetyl-cysteine and diphenyleneionium (antioxidants) to inhibit uric acid-induced MCP-1 production suggested involvement of intracellular redox pathways. Uric acid regulates critical proinflammatory pathways in VSMCs, suggesting it may have a role in the vascular changes associated with hypertension and vascular disease.
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              Mild hyperuricemia induces vasoconstriction and maintains glomerular hypertension in normal and remnant kidney rats.

              Hyperuricemia has been associated with renal disease. Because glomerular hemodynamic alterations critically contribute to initiation and progression of renal disease, we evaluated the effect of mild hyperuricemia in glomerular microcirculatory changes in rats under normal conditions and with renal injury induced by subtotal renal ablation (RK). Hyperuricemia was induced in normal and remnant kidney (RK) rats on a normal sodium diet by administration of oxonic acid (OA). To prevent hyperuricemia, allopurinol (AP) was administered concomitantly. Glomerular hemodynamics were evaluated by micropuncture techniques. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), proteinuria, arterial morphology, and serum uric acid were measured. In RK rats, glomerulosclerosis, fibrosis, and inflammatory cell infiltration (CD5+) were also assessed. In normal rats, hyperuricemia resulted in afferent arteriole thickening associated with renal cortical vasoconstriction [single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) -35%, P < 0.05) and glomerular hypertension (P < 0.05). Allopurinol treatment prevented structural and functional alterations. In RK rats, hyperuricemia produced more renal vascular damage than control animals coupled with severe cortical vasoconstriction (SNGFR -40%, P < 0.05) and persistent glomerular hypertension. Allopurinol partially prevented cortical vasoconstriction, and fully prevented arteriolopathy and glomerular hypertension associated with significantly less infiltration of CD5+ cells. Hyperuricemia induces arteriolopathy of preglomerular vessels, which impairs the autoregulatory response of afferent arterioles, resulting in glomerular hypertension. Lumen obliteration induced by vascular wall thickening produces severe renal hypoperfusion. The resulting ischemia is a potent stimulus that induces tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis, as well as arterial hypertension. These studies provide a potential mechanism by which hyperuricemia can mediate hypertension and renal disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2005
                October 2005
                12 October 2005
                : 25
                : 5
                : 425-433
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Nephrology, Ewha Women’s University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; bSection of Nephrology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Tex., USA; cSection of Nephrology, Hypertension and Transplantation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla., USA; dDivision of Renal Diseases & Hypertension, UT-Houston Medical School, Houston, Tex., USA; eDepartment of Pharmacotherapeutics, Kyoritsu University of Pharmacy, and fDepartment of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan, and gDivision of Nephrology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, N.Y., USA
                Article
                87713 Am J Nephrol 2005;25:425–433
                10.1159/000087713
                16113518
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 1, References: 44, Pages: 9
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/87713
                Categories
                Original Report: Laboratory Investigation

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