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      Human bone marrow stromal cells suppress T-lymphocyte proliferation induced by cellular or nonspecific mitogenic stimuli

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          Abstract

          CD2+ T lymphocytes obtained from either the donor of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) or a third party were cultured in mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLRs) with either allogeneic dendritic cells (DCs) or peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). When autologous or allogeneic BMSCs were added back to T cells stimulated by DCs or PBLs, a significant and dose-dependent reduction of T-cell proliferation, ranging from 60% ± 5% to 98% ± 1%, was evident. Similarly, addition of BMSCs to T cells stimulated by polyclonal activators resulted in a 65% ± 5% (P = .0001) suppression of proliferation. BMSC- induced T-cell suppression was still evident when BMSCs were added in culture as late as 5 days after starting of MLRs. BMSC-inhibited T lymphocytes were not apoptotic and efficiently proliferated on restimulation. BMSCs significantly suppressed both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (65% ± 5%, [P = .0005] and 75% ± 15% [P = .0005], respectively). Transwell experiments, in which cell-cell contact between BMSCs and effector cells was prevented, resulted in a significant inhibition of T-lymphocyte proliferation, suggesting that soluble factors were involved in this phenomenon. By using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, transforming growth factor β1 and hepatocyte growth factor were identified as the mediators of BMSC effects. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that (1) autologous or allogeneic BMSCs strongly suppress T-lymphocyte proliferation, (2) this phenomenon that is triggered by both cellular as well as nonspecific mitogenic stimuli has no immunologic restriction, and (3) T-cell inhibition is not due to induction of apoptosis and is likely due to the production of soluble factors.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Multilineage Potential of Adult Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

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            In vitro chondrogenesis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells.

            A culture system that facilitates the chondrogenic differentiation of rabbit bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells has been developed. Cells obtained in bone marrow aspirates were first isolated by monolayer culture and then transferred into tubes and allowed to form three-dimensional aggregates in a chemically defined medium. The inclusion of 10(-7) M dexamethasone in the medium induced chondrogenic differentiation of cells within the aggregate as evidenced by the appearance of toluidine blue metachromasia and the immunohistochemical detection of type II collagen as early as 7 days after beginning three-dimensional culture. After 21 days, the matrix of the entire aggregate contained type II collagen. By 14 days of culture, there was also evidence for type X collagen present in the matrix and the cells morphologically resembled hypertrophic chondrocytes. However, chondrogenic differentiation was achieved in only approximately 25% of the marrow cell preparations used. In contrast, with the addition of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1), chondrogenesis was induced in all marrow cell preparations, with or without the presence of 10(-7) M dexamethasone. The induction of chondrogenesis was accompanied by an increase in the alkaline phosphatase activity of the aggregated cells. The results of RT-PCR experiments indicated that both type IIA and IIB collagen mRNAs were detected by 7 days postaggregation as was mRNA for type X collagen. Conversely, the expression of the type I collagen mRNA was detected in the preaggregate cells but was no longer detectable at 7 days after aggregation. These results provide histological, immunohistochemical, and molecular evidence for the in vitro chondrogenic differentiation of adult mammalian progenitor cells derived from bone marrow.
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              Growth kinetics, self-renewal, and the osteogenic potential of purified human mesenchymal stem cells during extensive subcultivation and following cryopreservation.

              Recent studies have demonstrated the existence of a subset of cells in human bone marrow capable of differentiating along multiple mesenchymal lineages. Not only do these mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess multilineage developmental potential, but they may be cultured ex vivo for many passages without overt expression of a differentiated phenotype. The goals of the current study were to determine the growth kinetics, self-renewing capacity and the osteogenic potential of purified MSCs during extensive subcultivation and following cryopreservation. Primary cultures of MSCs were established from normal iliac crest bone marrow aspirates, an aliquot was cryopreserved and thawed, and then both frozen and unfrozen populations were subcultivated in parallel for as many as 15 passages. Cells derived from each passage were assayed for their kinetics of growth and their osteogenic potential in response to an osteoinductive medium containing dexamethasone. Spindle-shaped human MSCs in primary culture exhibit a lag phase of growth, followed by a log phase, finally resulting in a growth plateau state. Passaged cultures proceed through the same stages, however, the rate of growth in log phase and the final number of cells after a fixed period in culture diminishes as a function of continued passaging. The average number of population doublings for marrow-derived adult human MSCs was determined to be 38 +/- 4, at which time the cells finally became very broad and flattened before degenerating. The osteogenic potential of cells was conserved throughout every passage as evidenced by the significant increase in APase activity and formation of mineralized nodular aggregates. Furthermore, the process of cryopreserving and thawing the cells had no effect on either their growth or osteogenic differentiation. Importantly, these studies demonstrate that replicative senescence of MSCs is not a state of terminal differentiation since these cells remain capable of progressing through the osteogenic lineage. The use of population doubling potential as a measure of biological age suggests that MSCs are intermediately between embryonic and adult tissues, and as such, may provide an in situ source for mesenchymal progenitor cells throughout an adult's lifetime.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Blood
                American Society of Hematology
                1528-0020
                0006-4971
                May 15 2002
                May 15 2002
                : 99
                : 10
                : 3838-3843
                Affiliations
                [1 ] From the “Cristina Gandini” Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano, Italy; and Chair of Oncology, University of Milano, Milano, Italy.
                Article
                10.1182/blood.V99.10.3838
                11986244
                © 2002

                Molecular medicine, Neurosciences

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