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      Effects of Nimesulide, a Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitor, on Cardiovascular Alterations in Endotoxemia

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          Abstract

          Prostanoids and cytokines are known to play a pivotal role in the mechanisms leading to endotoxin-induced cardiovascular failure. We investigated the effect of nimesulide (NIM), a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, on the cardiovascular alterations occurring during endotoxemia, and on prostaglandin E<sub>2</sub> (PGE<sub>2</sub>), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels in endotoxemic rats. NIM significantly reduced endotoxin-induced elevation of plasma and myocardial levels of TNF-α, but not those of IL-1β. Searching for the mechanism underlying the anti-TNF-α effect of NIM, it was found that the drug reduced nuclear factor kappa B activation through diminished nuclear levels of p-65 accompanied by a protective effect against the cardiovascular alterations and mortality seen during endotoxemia. In addition, the inhibitory effect of NIM on endotoxin-induced elevation in plasma and hypothalamic levels of PGE<sub>2</sub> was noteworthy, and this may suggest that the large amounts of PGE<sub>2</sub> observed during endotoxemia are mainly produced via COX-2.

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          Most cited references 29

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          NF-kappaB in cancer: from innocent bystander to major culprit.

          Nuclear factor of kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a sequence-specific transcription factor that is known to be involved in the inflammatory and innate immune responses. Although the importance of NF-KB in immunity is undisputed, recent evidence indicates that NF-kappaB and the signalling pathways that are involved in its activation are also important for tumour development. NF-kappaB should therefore receive as much attention from cancer researchers as it has already from immunologists.
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            The natural history of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). A prospective study.

            Define the epidemiology of the four recently classified syndromes describing the biologic response to infection: systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock. Prospective cohort study with a follow-up of 28 days or until discharge if earlier. Three intensive care units and three general wards in a tertiary health care institution. Patients were included if they met at least two of the criteria for SIRS: fever or hypothermia, tachycardia, tachypnea, or abnormal white blood cell count. Development of any stage of the biologic response to infection: sepsis, severe sepsis, septic shock, end-organ dysfunction, and death. During the study period 3708 patients were admitted to the survey units, and 2527 (68%) met the criteria for SIRS. The incidence density rates for SIRS in the surgical, medical, and cardiovascular intensive care units were 857, 804, and 542 episodes per 1000 patient-days, respectively, and 671, 495, and 320 per 1000 patient-days for the medical, cardiothoracic, and general surgery wards, respectively. Among patients with SIRS, 649 (26%) developed sepsis, 467 (18%) developed severe sepsis, and 110 (4%) developed septic shock. The median interval from SIRS to sepsis was inversely correlated with the number of SIRS criteria (two, three, or all four) that the patients met. As the population of patients progressed from SIRS to septic shock, increasing proportions had adult respiratory distress syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute renal failure, and shock. Positive blood cultures were found in 17% of patients with sepsis, in 25% with severe sepsis, and in 69% with septic shock. There were also stepwise increases in mortality rates in the hierarchy from SIRS, sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock: 7%, 16%, 20%, and 46%, respectively. Of interest, we also observed equal numbers of patients who appeared to have sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock but who had negative cultures. They had been prescribed empirical antibiotics for a median of 3 days. The cause of the systemic inflammatory response in these culture-negative populations is unknown, but they had similar morbidity and mortality rates as the respective culture-positive populations. This prospective epidemiologic study of SIRS and related conditions provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence of a clinical progression from SIRS to sepsis to severe sepsis and septic shock.
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              Anti-cachectin/TNF monoclonal antibodies prevent septic shock during lethal bacteraemia.

              Bacterial infection of the mammalian bloodstream can lead to overwhelming sepsis, a potentially fatal syndrome of irreversible cardiovascular collapse (shock) and critical organ failure. Cachectin, also known as tumour necrosis factor, is a macrophage-derived peptide hormone released in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and it has been implicated as a principal mediator of endotoxic shock, although its function in bacterial sepsis is not known. Anaesthetized baboons were passively immunized against endogenous cachectin and subsequently infused with an LD100 dose of live Escherichia coli. Control animals (not immunized against cachectin) developed hypotension followed by lethal renal and pulmonary failure. Neutralizing monoclonal anti-cachectin antibody fragments (F(ab')2) administered to baboons only one hour before bacterial challenge protected against shock, but did not prevent critical organ failure. Complete protection against shock, vital organ dysfunction, persistent stress hormone release and death was conferred by administration of antibodies 2 h before bacterial infusion. These results indicate that cachectin is a mediator of fatal bacteraemic shock, and suggest that antibodies against cachectin offer a potential therapy of life-threatening infection.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2005
                February 2005
                07 February 2005
                : 103
                : 2
                : 92-100
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, and bDepartment of Cardiology, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer-Sheva, Israel
                Article
                82470 Cardiology 2005;103:92–100
                10.1159/000082470
                15591708
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 2, References: 44, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Basic Science

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